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Cosmetology Ch 6

General Anatomy and Physiology

Cosmetology is primarily restricted to the muscles, nerves, circulatory system and bones of the head, face, neck, arms, hands, lower legs and feet
The basic unit of all living matter is the cell
The substance called protoplasm is found in the cells of all living things
The study of the structures of the human body is anatomy
A dense active protoplasm found in the center of the cell is nucleus
Most cells reproduce by dividing into two identical cells are called daughter cells
The watery fluid that cells need for growth, reproduction, and self-repair is found in the cytoplasm
The chemical process whereby cells are nourished and carry out their activities is metabolism
The chemical process of cell nourishment has two phases which are anabolism and catabolism
A collection of similar cells that perform a specific function are tissue
A type of tissue that supports,protects, and binds together other tissues of the body is connective tissue
Tissues that are a protective covering on the skin or the lining of the heart and glands are examples of epithelial tissue
Nerve tissue is composed of special cells known as neurons
The physical foundation of the body is the skeletal system
The connection between two or more bones is a joint
the scientific name for the study of the anatomy, structure, and function of the bones is osteology
The ankle joint is formed by the tibia, fibula, and the talus
The oval, bony case that protects the brain is the cranium
The hindmost bone of the skull, below the parietal bone, which forms the back of the skull above the nape is the occipital bone
The bones in the face are involved in facial massage
The system of the body that covers shapes,and supports the skeleton tissue is the muscular system
The medical term used to describe the study, function, and diseases of the muscles is myology
The two bones that form the upper jaw are maxillae bones
The two bones that form the sides and crown (top) of the cranium are parietal bones
The uppermost and largest bone of the arm, extending from the elbow to the shoulder, is the humerus
The foot is made up of 26 bones
The femur is a heavy, long bone that forms the leg above the knee
Muscles are fibrous tissue classified as three types, which are striated, non-striated and cardiac
Skeletal muscles attached to bone that are voluntary or controlled at will are striated muscle
The part of the muscle that does not move is the origin
Pressure applied to a muscle during the massage is usually directed from the insertion to the origin
The broad muscle that covers the top of the head is the epicranius
The front portion of the epicranius that raises the eyebrows, draws the scalp forward and causes the wrinkles across the forehead is the frontals
The sternocleidomastiod muscle is the muscle of the neck that is responsible for lowering and rotating the head
The ring muscle of the eye socket that enables the eyes to close is the obicularus oculi
A muscle covering the back of the neck and the upper middle region of the back that rotates and controls the swinging of the arms is the trapzezius
Muscles that straighten the wrist, hand, and the fingers to form a straight line are the adductors
The gastrocnemius is located in the lower leg
The scientific study of the structure, function, and pathology of the nervous system is neurology
Every square inch of the body is supplied with fine fibers known as nerves
The nervous system that controls the brian, spinal cord, spinal nerves, and cranial nerves is the central nervous system
The system of the nerves that carries impulses or messages to and from the central nervous system is the peripheral nervous system
The portion of the central nervous system that originates in the brain, extends down the lower extremity of the trunk, and is protected is the spinal cord
The largest and most complex nerve tissue in the body is the brain
Whitish cords made up of bundles of nerve fibers held together by connective tissue are nerves
Sensory nerve endings that are located close to the surface of the skin are receptors
Nerves that carry impulses from the brain to the muscles and produce movement are motor nerves
The largest of the cranial nerves, also known as the trifacial nerve or the trigeminal nerve, is the fifth cranial nerve
The cheif motor nerve of the face that emerges near the lower part of the ear and extends to the muscle of the neck is the seventh cranial nerve
The nerve and branches that supply the thumb side of the arm and back of the hand is the radial nerve
The anterior tibial nerve extends to the front of the leg, behind the muscles, and is also referred tp as deep peroneal nerve
The system that controls the steady circulation of blood through the body by means of the heart and blood vessels is the circulatory system
the system that involves the heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins is the blood vascular system
A clear yellowish fluid that circulates in the lymphatics of the body and carries waste and impurities away from the cells is the lymph
The upper, thin-walled chambers of the heart are the left and right atria
The blood circulatory system that sends blood from the heart to the lungs to be purified is the pulmanary circulation
tubelike structures that include arteries, capillaries, and veins are blood vessels
A thin-walled blood vessel that is less elastic than an artery is a vein
The largest artery in the human body is the aorta
White blood cells perform the important function of destroying disease-causing microorganisms
The artery that supplies blood to the anterior (front) part of the scalp, ear, face, neck, and side of the head is the external carotid artery
The main blood supply of the arms and hands are the ulnar and radial arteries
The radial artery is not an artery that supplies blood to the lower leg or foot
Endocrine glands release a secretion called hormones
The integumentary system is made up of the skin and accessory organs such as oil and sweat glands, sensory receptors, hair, and nails