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LPT Endocrine System

Endocrine System

Adrenals secrete steriods, mineral corticoids, glucocorticoids, corticosteroids
antidiabetic agents insulin and oral hypoglycemics
corticosteroids anti-inflammitory action, supress immune reaction, produced by adrenals
cretinism hypothyroidism occurring in infancy and childhood
Type II Diabetes pancreatic disorder, inability to use carbs, insulin ineffective or unavailable
diabetic coma unconsciousness caused by too little insulin
gland specialized tissue that secretes hormones
glucagon secreted by pancreas, raises level of blood sugar, counteracts insulin
glucocorticoids secreted by adrenals, rebulate metabolism of carbs and fats, anti-inflammatory effect
glycogen form of glucose stored in liver or muscles for release as body needs it
glycosuria glucose in the urine
hormone chemical secreted by glands to regulate specific body function
hyperplasia actual increase in # of cells
hyperthyroidism disorder caused by increase of thyroid hormone
hypoglycemia low blood sugar, could result from too much insulin
hypothalamus controls sleep, temperature, appetite, stimulates or inhibits pituitary
hypothyroidism decrease in thyroid hormones
insulin secreted by beta cells in islets of Langerhans in pancreas, response to increase glucose
iodine mineral needed by thyroid to produce thyroxin
islets of Langerhans beta cells in pancreas that produce insulin, alpha cells that secrete glucagon
ketoacidosis surplus of fatty acids (ketones) in blood, complication of diabetes
metabolism rate at which cells produce energy such as heat and muscular strength
mineralcorticoids secreted by adrenal gland, maintains blood volume
myxedema severe longstanding hypothyroidism
oral hypoglycemics drugs that stimulate insulin production or help body use insulin more effeciently
parathyroid hormone (PTH) regulates calcium content of bloodstream
parathyroids secrete parathyroid
pituitary master gland, stimulates other glands to secrete their hormones
polydipsia excessive thirst
polyphagia excessive hunger
polyuria excessive urination
somatotropin growth hormone secreted by pituitary
tetany muscle spasms caused by lack of calcium in bloodstream
thyroid produces thyroid hormone, gland below larynx
thyroxine secreted by thyroid, regulates speed of metabolism in body cells
IDDM Type 1 or insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NIDDM Type 2 or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
somatotropin growth hormone secreted by the pituitary gland
gigantism, acromegaly caused by excessive growth hormone produced by the pituitary
dwarfism not enough somatotropin or growth hormone secreted by pituitary
parathyroid gland function maintain a normal blood calciun level by moving stored calcium from bones to blood
hyperparathyroidism-symptoms bones soft,easy to bend, too much calcium released from bones into blood
hypoparathyroidism-symptoms muscles spasm and convulse, gradual paralysis may occur, tetany
Antidiuretic Hormone secreted by pituitary gland, regulates reabsorbtion of water in kidney tubules
thyrocalcitonin Secreted by thyroid, maintains calcium level in blood
Growth Hormone is secreted by Pituitary
vasopressin pituitary hormone, antidiuretic hormone, not enough causes diabetes insipidus
Symptoms of Diabetes Insipidus polyuria, polydipsia, nocturia, enuresis, fatigue
goiter overgrowth of thyroid from lack of thyroid hormone or lack or iodine
Symptoms of Hyperthyroidism increased metabolism, increased heart rate, increased temperature, increased respirations, hot, nervous
Symptoms of Hypothyroidism decreased metabolism, cold, personality changes, tired, wt gain
Synthroid thyroid replacement medication, take at same time every day
suppression of immune system can be a side effect of corticosteroids
Androgenic steroids produced by Adrenals
Androgenic steroids responsible for development of sex characteristics
Cushings Syndrome-symptoms wt. gain, muscle weakness, fatigue, fragile skin, thin hair, truncal obesity, purple striae, bruising, impaired wound healing, moon face
Cushings Syndrome may be caused by Corticosteroid treatment
Cushings Complications osteoporosis,pathologic fractures, peptic ulcers, disorder of fat metabolism, impaired glucose tolerance, frequent infections, impaired wound healing
Addison's Disease not enough steroid hormones from adrenal glands
Hydrocortisone Steroid, topical or injectable
Flonase steroid, nasal spray for allergies, inhalent for asthma
Methylprednisolone steroid, for severe inflammation, immunosupression, inject into joints
Melatonin is produced by the Pineal Gland
Pancreas produces insulin,glucagon and digestive enzymes
Beta Cells cells in pancreas that produce insulin
Alpha Cells cells in pancreas that produce glucagon
Insulin-effect on body allows body to use sugar for energy
Type I Diabetes Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus, need insulin replacement, beta cells destroyed or suppressed
Humalog Really fast acting insulin 5-20 min, given before meals
Humulin R, Semelente Fast acting insulin, 1/2 to 1 hour, given before meals
NPH, Humulin N, Lente intermediate acting insulin 8-28 hours
Ultralente Long acting insulin
Insulin Shock-symptoms intense hunger, nervousness,sweating, palpitations, HA, confusion, abnormal hostile or aggressive behavior
Insulin Shock Treatment sugar
Ketoacidosis-cause usually not enough insulin, high blood glucose levels
Ketoacidosis-sypmptoms fruity, acetone breath, confusion, N,V,D, dehydration, wt loss
Diabetes-3 main symptoms polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia
Type II Diabetes Metabolic disorder, body does not make enough insulin or can't use it properly
Type II Diabetes-symptomes frequent infections, blurry vision, cuts and bruises that heal slowly, tingling or numbness in hands and feet
Type II Diabetes-treatment Diet, exercise, oral antidiabetic drugs, insulin (SE-upset stomach, diarrhea)
Glucophage (Metformin) Oral antidiabetic-helps your body use insulin more efficiently
Chlorpropamide (Diabinase) oral antidiabetic-helps your pancreas make more insulin (SE-hypoglycemia)
Miglitol (Glycet) oral antidiabetic-helps slow rise of glucose by slowing breakdown of carbs (SE-flatulence, diarrhea)
Sitagliptin phosphate oral antidiabetic medication, increases insulin release,(SE-nausea, diarrhea, Stevens Johnson Syndrome)
Rosiglitazone (Avandia) oral antidiabetic, improves insulin sensitivity, HA, fatigue, diarrhea
Diabetic Neuropathy-symptoms tingling pain, numbness or weakness in hands or feet, digestive and bladder problems, dizziness
T/F As a technician you can trim the nails of a diabetic client False-you need to call the nurse if a diebetics nails need trimmed
Diabetics should take care of their feet by doing these things good hygiene, wearing shoes that fit, white cotton or wool socks, cotton between toes if rubbing, not going barefoot, not using heat on feet
Symptoms of Hypoglycemia shakiness, nervousness, sweating, hunger, combativeness, changes in behavior,impaired vision, drowsiness, weakness, dizziness, passing out
Symptoms of Hyperglycemia polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia, dry skin, nausea, blurred vision, drowsiness
If you find a diabetic person who is shaking and has changes in their behavior you should: check their blood glucose levels and call the nurse if it is below 70.
Which is more of an emergency in a diabetic patient,hyperglycemia or hypoglycemia. Hypoglycemia-give some form of sugar as soon as possible even if you are unable to check their blood glucose levels
Diabetics take urine tests to determine the presence of Sugar and ketones
The islets of Langerhans, which secrete insulin and glucoagon, are located in the Pancreas
The medical term for sugar in the urine glycosuria
Diabetes insipidus is caused by a lack of antidiuretic hormone
Regular and semilente are fast-acting insulins
tolbuamide (Orinase) and chlorpropamide (Diabinese) are oral hypoglycemics
A disease caused by lack of insulin is diabetes mellitus
In a diabetic, extreme hunger,sweating, difficulty concentrating, palpitations may be signs of hypoglycemia
Excessive thirst, production of excess urine, weakness, and glycosuria are symptoms of lack of insulin
Which of the following conditions may require an adjustment in the diabetic's dosage of insulin emotional stress and other drugs, heavy exercise, a change in diet
The presence of many fatty acids in the bloodstream of a diabetic person leads to an imbalance in the body's pH. The condition is called ketoacidosis
You have just given a patient an injection of regular insulin. You know tht its action peaks in about 2 or 3 hours. It is important for you to know this so that you can. be alert for signs of hypolgycemia at that time
Insulin suspensions should be discarded if they contain clumps and granules and should be rotated gently between the palm and tipped end to end before administration.
In case of insulin shock, give orange juice or candy
Polydipsia excessive thirst
Diabetes is characterized by an abnormality of carbohydrate metabolism
A sign of hyperglycemia is extreme hunger
If a person experiences hypoglycemic reaction give orange juice with sugar added
Low blood sugar is called hypoglycemia
Gestational diabetes may occur during pregnancy
Glucagon Raises blood sugar by stimulating liver to convert glycogen to glucose
Created by: LPT Program