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Med Language Ch. 14

Endocrinology - Turley

endocrinology the study of an organ or gland within the body that secretes hormones
home/o- same
-stasis- condition of standing still
-crine a thing that secretes
homeostasis a state of equilibrium of the internal environment of the body
hypothalamus releases hormones that stimulate or inhibits the release of hormones from the pituitary gland
pituitary gland "master gland" - anterior secrets seven hormones whose effects are felt throughout the body, posterior secretes two hormones
pineal gland secretes melatonin which regulates the wake/sleep cycle - found in the brain between the two lobes of the thalamus
thyroid gland found in the neck - secretes three hormones which control cellular metabolism and calcium levels in the blood
parathyroid glands four glands found on the posterior of the thyroid, regulate the amount of calcium in the blood (opposite effect of calcitonin from thyroid)
thymus posterior to sternum - secretes thymosins which cause immature t-cells to develop and mature
pancreas secretes three hormones from the Islets of Langerhans - glucagon, insulin and somatostatin
insulin crucial to metabolism of glucose
insul/o- island
adrenal gland found on superior pole of kidney - two layers - each secreting different hormones
aden/o- gland
adren/o- adrenal gland
ovaries secrete estradiol
testes secrete testosterone
synergism process of working together
antagonism process of working against or opposing
hormone chemical messenger of the endocrine system that is produced by a gland and secreted into the blood
gonadotropins category of hormones that stimulates the male and female sex glands (gonads)
growth hormone hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland which stimulates cell growth and protein synthesis in cells, increasing height and weight in puberty
androgens male sex hormone
estrogens female sex hormones
epinephrine hormone secreted by the adrenal medulla in response to a nerve impulse from the sympathetic nervous system
acr/o- extremity
gigantism hypersecretion of growth hormone during childhood and puberty
Grave's disease most common form of hyperthyroidism
exopthalmos bulging, protruding eyeballs
opthalmos eye
ex- away, out from
goiter swelling of the thyroid (thyromegaly) causes by a tumor, lack of iodine or chronic inflammation
hypoglycemia deficient glucose in the blood
glyc/o- glucose (sugar)
diabetes mellitus hypsecretion of insulin
ketoacidosis high level of ketones in the blood which occurs when there is no insulin to metabolize glucose, may result in a diabetic coma
Cushing's syndrome hypersecretion of cortisol resulting in a moon face, excessive back and abdominal fat deposits, and dark facial hair (women)
Addison's disease hyposecretion of cortisol
polydipsia excessive thirst