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Cosmetology Ch 5

Infection Control: Principles and practices

Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDSs) are obtained from the product manufacturer
Regulatory agencies and governmental health departments require businesses that serve the public to follow prescribed sanitary precautions
Bacteria are very small and can only be seen with the aid of a microscope
One-celled microorganisms with both plant and animal characteristics are bacteria
In the human body, nonpathogenic bacteria help metabolize food, protect against infectious microorganisms, and stimulate the immune response
bacteria can exist almost anywhere
A small minority of bacteria that cause disease when invading plant or animal tissue are pathogenic
A type of pathogenic bacteria that require living matter for growth are parasites
Pus forming bacteria arranged in curved lines that resemble a string of beads are streptococci
Cocci are pathogenic bacteria that are round-shaped
Bacteria that may cause strep throat or blood poising are streptococci
Bacteria that grow in pairs and can cause pneumonia are diplococci
Lyme disease, syphilis, or sexually transmitted diseases are caused by spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria called spirilla
In humans, pathogenic bacteria are known to produce diseases
bacteria that are transmitted through the air and rarely show active motility are cocci
Bacilli and spirilla bacteria are both motile and use slender hairlike extensions known as flagella
Harmless bacteria are what type of bacteria nonpathogenic bacteria
In 2000, a bacteria called Mycobacterium fortuitum furunculosis caused a client outbreak due to the failure of the practitioner to follow proper disinfection guidelines for Whirlpool foot spas
Bacteria generally consist of an outer wall containing a liquid called protoplasm
The life cycle of bacteria has two distinct phases, the active stage and: The inactive or spore-forming stage
The process whereby bacteria grow, reproduce, and divide into two new cells is: mitosis
Bacteria that pose little or no risk to a client in the salon setting but are dangerous in the medical setting are: anthrax and tetanus bacilli
The presence of pus is a sign of a bacterial infection
When body tissues are invaded by pathogenic bacteria, it is a sign of an infection
Common human bacteria transferred through skin to skin contact or by using unclean implements are contagious
An infection, indicated by a lesion containing pus confined to a particular part of the body is a local infection
When a disease spreads from one person to another by contact, it is contagious
A submicroscopic structure capable of infecting plants and animals including bacteria is a virus
A virus can live and reproduce only by penetrating other cells and becoming part of them
Hepatitis A, a blood-borne virus, is marked by an inflammation of the liver
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
An organism that lives on another living organism and draws its nourishment from that organism is a parasite
If nail implements have not been disinfected properly, the client may contract nail fungus
Disease-causing bacteria or viruses that are carried through the body in the blood or by body fluids are bloodborne pathogens
Transmission of bloodborne pathogens can become possible through shaving, nipping, facial treatments, waxing, tweezing, or anytime the skin barrier is broken
A skin disease caused by an infestation of head lice is pediculosis
The ability of the body to destroy pathogenic bacteria or viruses that have entered the body is immunity
The type of immunity the body develops after overcoming a disease or through vaccinations is acquired immunity
The surfaces of tools or objects not completely free from dirt, oils, and microbes are covered contaminants
The process of removing pathogens and other substances from tools and surfaces is decontamination
The three main types of decontamination are sanitation, disinfection, and sterilization
Decontamination is a process that involves the use of physical of chemical means to remove or destroy pathogens
Estheticians who use needles and probes that lance the skin must use a level of decontamination called sterilization
In the salon setting, disinfection is extremely effective in controlling microorganisms on non-living surfaces
A higher level of decontamination than sanitation is disinfection
An exception to the level of protection that disinfection provides and the possibility of an infection could be present if the clients skin is broken
A chemical agent that is used to destroy bacteria and viruses on surfaces is disinfectant
Disinfectants must have a registration number and be approved by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
A Manufacturer must supply pertinent safety and storage information by providing Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
The agency that enforces safety an health standards in the workplace is OSHA
A disinfectant that meets regulatory agency requirements for destroying bacteria, fungi, and viruses is bacterial, fungicidal, and virucidal
A disinfectant used in salons should be appropriate and have the correct efficacy
A salon implement that accidentally comes in contact with blood or body fluids should be cleaned and completely immersed in an EPA-registered disinfectant
Any item that cannot be disinfected after use on a client must be discarded
Common, very safe, and useful types of disinfectant that contain sophisticated blends that work to disinfect implements in 10 to 15 minute are Quaternary ammonium compounds
Disinfectant with a high pH that can cause skin irritation or burn the skin or eyes are phenolic disinfectants
To be effective in the disinfection of implements, ethyl alcohol must be no less than 70 percent
A common household product used effectively as disinfectant is sodium hypochlorite
When mixing a disinfectant solution, add disinfectant to water and mix according to the manufacturers exact directions
To avoid contaminating implements, remove from a disinfectant solution using tongs, basket, or gloves
Store a clean, disinfected implement in a clean dry container
How often must an individual towels and lines be set aside to be laundered after use on a client
The contact points of equipment that cannot be immersed in liquid solutions should be cleaned and disinfected using a regulatory oversight agency approved disinfectant
At the end of the day, the disinfectant procedure for a foot spa should include removing and cleaning the screen, washing the screen and inlet with soap and water, and totally immersing the screen in an approved disinfectant according to manufacturer's directions and flushing the system with low sudsing soap & warm water for 10 min, rinsing, draining, and letting air dry
Every week, foot spas should be cleaned following the daily procedure and filled with a disinfectant solution and left at least 6 to 10 hours, then drained and flushed
Any disposable material used in cleaning blood spills should be placed in double bags before disposing or placed in a container for contaminated waste
The first step in the decontamination process is called sanitation
When using liquid soap, scrub your hands and lather for at least 20 seconds
The use of bar soap is prohibited in most salons because bar soaps grow bacteria
A danger of using anti-bacterial soaps is they promote growth of resistant strains
Antiseptics are effective for sanitizing the hands
The agency that sets the standard for dealing with bloodborne pathogens is OSHA
Universal precautions require employees to assume that human blood and body fluids are infectious for bloodborne pathogens
A client that is infected with Hepatitis B or other bloodborne pathogens and shows no symptoms or signs of infection is asymptomatic