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Criminology Test 2
|The underlying sociological theory which guides the approach of social problems as well as guided a major orientation of research on occupations.
|The activities of individuals or groups making assertions of grievances and claims with respect to putative conditions.
|Social Problems Activities
|The activity of making claims, complaint, or demands for change or against change.
|The dictionary defines a claim as:
|Authoritative or challenging request; demand of a right or supposed right; calling another for something due, or supposed to be due;. assertion, statement or implication often made, or likely to be suspected of being made, without adequate justification.
|A demand made by one party to another that something be done about some putative conditions. This includes demanding of services, filling out forms, lodging complaints , filling lawsuits, calling press conferences, writing letters of protests, etc.
|A distinctive kind of activity is singled out for attention.
|Functionalism, conflict, and symbolic interactionism
|Broadly defined as a violation of society's norms or rules for appropriate behavior.
|I, II, III, IV, and V
|Zones IV and V
|These zones are the outlying areas which predominately made up of whites, middle and upper-class homeowners. Had "social cohesion".
|This zone was located in the area between the center of the city and the outlying districts and were the working-class neighborhoods.
|Zones I and II
|Popularly known as "the zones of transition." These zones were located in the heart of the city, encroached upon by the growth of business and industry. Had high concentration of transients. "Had little to no cohesion."
|Caused by "rapid social change" which disrupts the normal smooth operation of a social system.
|Social Strain theory
|Theories that share the underlying assumption that nonconforming behavior arises out of social circumstances in which individuals or groups experience normative confusion and/or contradiction.
|There is an area in between an old norm and a new norm called an anomie which is also known as normlessness.
|Robert Merton's Strain Theory
|The disjuncture (disconnect) between cultural goals and institutionalized means.
|Modes of adaptation
|1. Conformity (Most popular) 2. Innovation 3. Ritualism 4. Retreatism 5. Rebellion
|Occurs when people accept cultural goals and reject the institutionalized means for attainment of cultural goals. Produces deviance which includes crime and juvenile delinquency.
|Occurs when people follow institutionalized means for the attainment of cultural goals rigidity and compulsively, even though they no longer hope to achieve the goals set by society.
|Occurs when people tried to attain their American Dream but could not succeed and as a result reject both the cultural goals and institutionalized means. This situation is referred to as withdrawal from society.
|Occurs when people reject both cultural goals and institutionalized means approved by society and instead attempted to change them with new ones.
|The process whereby individuals learn and internalize the attitudes, values, and behaviors appropriate to persons functioning as social beings and responsive participating members of society.
|Differential Association Theory
|The theory explains the process through which a individual comes to become a criminal and/or delinquent. Formulated in 1943.
|The distribution of crime and delinquency on a map of an area.
|The Principle of Differential Association Theory
|A person becomes delinquent because of an excess of definitions favorable to violation of law over definitions unfavorable to violation of the law.
|Social Control Theory
|The theory is based on the assumption that all of us contain the inherent potential to commit deviant acts. The reason that people do not commit deviant acts is seen as a result of effective restraint or social control.
|Outer social control
|Formal and informal control mechanisms
|Inner social control
|Acquisition of appropriate cultural and social capital
|Reckless' Containment Theory
|Inner and outer containments
|Inner Containments Include:
|Internal Control & Indirect Control
|Parents are used as control agents. Society tries to socialize children to its norms and values, so that they can internalize them and turn them into a conscience.
|Parents are used as control agents. Society attempts to develop in children's affection and respect for their elders.
|Outer Containment Includes:
|Direct Control and Satisfaction of legitimate needs
|By relying on the police, parents, schools, churches, friends, or peer groups, and other confirming agents
|Satisfaction of legitimate needs
|Through family, schools, economic system, social welfare and other social institutions, society provides legitimate needs.
|Hirschi's Social Bond Theory
|Attachment, commitment, involvement, and belief.
|The emotional dimension of the social bond theory which explains conformity as emanating from sensitive regard and respect for one's fellow human beings. Signifies how much one really cares about other people and conventional social institutions.
|A strong commitment to conformity to societal norms and values, such as the developmental of an occupational career and the establishment of reputation of virtue.
|A strong preoccupation and heavy investment of time and effort in conventional activities, such as going to school full time, being active in church programs, keeps a full time employment etc.
|"Great society program"
|One of the implications of the concentric zone theory of the Chicago School of sociology and criminology.
|This element of the social bond entails one's perception of the moral worth of societal norms.
|Techniques of neutralization
|Denial of responsibility, denial of injury, denial of victim, condemnation of the condemners, and appeal to higher loyalties.
|Denial of responsibility
|Occurs when criminals or delinquents claim that their criminal or delinquent acts may have been an "accident," or they mat see themselves as "victims" of society with no control over what they did.
|Denial of injury
|This can occur when a deviant makes the following rationalization: what I did was not wrong because no one got hurt.
|Denial of a victim
|Occurs when a deviant assumes that his or her acts of deviancy is a revenge for the wrong did to him or her. This involves situations where a deviant claims that the victim deserved what he or she got.
|Condemnation of the condemners
|Occurs when a deviant claims that other people have no legitimacy to pass judgment on him or her. They rationalized that the police are unfair, politicians are corrupts, teachers are unjust, etc. They have no moral ground to accuse me of some wrong doing.
|Appeal to Higher Loyalties
|For example, a situation whereby a boy considers his loyalty to a group such as a gang as more important than following the predominant norms and values of larger society.
|A status that seem to overshadow every other statuses one may have
|Labeling and Interactional Theories
|Primarily concerned with the characteristics of criminal and/or delinquent actors.
|Implies the way people and actions are constructed and defined as criminals and/or delinquent.
|Founder of interactionism theory
|George Herbert Mead
|Founder of Symbolic Interactionism
|The commission of a delinquency or a crime after the first delinquent or criminal act, with the acceptance of the delinquent or criminal label.
|A concept created by Robert Merton in which the offender's self-image is defined by the level.
|The Importation Theory
|The conventional framework for the explanation of the emergence of organized crime in the United States of America.
|The Deprivation Theory
|The antithesis of the importation approach explanation of the emergence of organized crime in the United States of America.
|Ethnic Succession Theory
|The process different immigrant groups have used the provision of illegal vice activity such as alcohol, prostitution, gambling, and narcotics as a means of social mobility.
|Stonequist's Three Significant Phases in Personal Evolution of a Marginal Person
|Phase when one is not aware that the racial or nationality conflict embraces a career; a period when one consciously experiences conflict; more permanent adjustments, or lack of adjustment, which he/she makes or attempts to make in his/her situation.