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|What is NOT a goal of the criminal justice system?
|What are three goals of the criminal justice system?
|Doing justice, controlling justice, and preventing crime.
|What does it mean to "Do Justice?"
|Hold offenders accountable, protect rights, treat like offenses alike, take into account the relevant difference between offenders and offenses.
|What does it mean to "Control Crime?"
|Arrest, prosecute, convict and punish.
|What does it mean to "Prevent Crime?"
|Deterrent actions of courts, police, and corrections.
|What are some of the characteristics of the Criminal Justice System?
|Federalism, Discretion, Sequential Tasks, Filtering, and Disparities.
|What are the two justice systems?
|Federalism and State.
|What are the three subsystems of the criminal justice system?
|Police, courts, and corrections.
|How would you describe "Discretion" in the criminal justice system?
|Police, Prosecutors and Judges have an option to make choices on how to respond to crime.
|Is discretion in the criminal justice system a good thing or a bad thing?
|Mostly a good thing.
|How does Filtering affect the police level?
|Much of crime is unreported and many offenders are never caught.
|How does Filtering affect the prosecution/court level?
|Most cases are solved by plea bargaining and few cases go to trial.
|How does Filter affect the corrections level?
|Only a handful of those who commit crimes are faced with a sentence.
|Who created the two models of the Criminal Process and what are they?
|Herbert Packer and he created the Crime Control Model and the Due Process Model.
|What is the Crime Control Model?
|Assumes that public safety is so important that every effort must be made to repress crime and emphasizes efficiency, speed, finality, and the capacity to apprehend, try, convict and dispose of a high proportion of offenders.
|What is the Due Process Model?
|Assumes that freedom and individual liberty are the most important and emphasizes the rights of defendants and formal decision-making procedures.
|What is a simple way to describe the Due Process model of the criminal justice system?
|An obstacle course.
|What is a simple way to describe the Crime Control model of the criminal justice system?
|An Assembly Line.
|What are the two different types of disparities?
|Differences across groups and differences within groups compared with what we would expect.
|What is an example of a disparity across different groups?
|When police search the cars of black drivers more often than the cars of white drivers.
|What is an example of the disparity within groups that are different than we would expect?
|Women make up 50% of the population but do not make up 50% of offenders.
|Are there racial/ethnic disparities in the Criminal Justice system?
|Yes, racial and ethnic disparities exist at all stages of the criminal justice process.
|What are some of the potential explanations for disparities within the CJS?
|Disproportionate involvement in crime, differences in criminal justice processing, overlaps of race and class effects, the impact of race neutral policies, and discrimination.
|What are crimes?
|Crimes are actions that violate laws defining which socially harmful behaviors will be subjected to the government's power to impose punishment.
|What is the definition of a crime?
|A human act, by commission or omission, that violates the law that is also punishable by the law. The definition of crime varies across time and place.
|What are the two ways that crimes can be classified?
|Mala in Se and Mala Prohibita
|What does Mala in Se mean?
|Wrong by their nature.
|What does Mala Prohibita mean?
|Wrong because it is prohibited by the law.
|What is the difference between a Felony and a Misdemeanor?
|A Felony is punishable by more than 1 year in prison or death and a misdemeanor is punishable by less than 1 year in prison, probation or intermediate sanctions.
|What are the five types of crimes?
|Visible crime, Victim-less crime, Occupational Crime, Organized crime, and Political crime.
|What is a visible crime?
|An offense against persons or property, often called a "street crime" or "ordinary crime."
|What are Victim-less crimes?
|Crimes without victims involving a willing and private exchange of goods and services that are in strong demand but are illegal. These crimes could be: prostitution, gambling, drug sales and use
|What are Occupational crimes?
|Criminal offenses committed through opportunities created in legal business or occupation.
|What is Organized Crime?
|This type of crime tends to refer to the framework within which acts are committed. Transnational crime (terrorism), would be a good example.
|What are Political crimes?
|Crimes against the government that are carried out for ideological purposes. Examples include: Treason and espionage.
|What are three ways in which crime is measured?
|The Uniform Crime Report, The National Crime Victimization Survey and Self-Report studies.
|What is the Uniform Crime Report (UCR)?
|An annual statistical summary of crimes reported by the local police to the FBI. These reports are voluntary by local, state, and federal law enforcement to the FBI and only measures offenses known to the police. Report only includes 29 types of crime.
|What are some of the problems with the UCR?
|Many types of crimes are not reported, there can be political manipulation, there can be a disparity between what citizens and police choose to report.
|What are the National Crime Victimization Surveys (NCVS)?
|Surveys conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. These include both reported and unreported crimes and provide information on victims and offenders when and where crimes occurred.
|What are some of the problems with the NCVS?
|It can exclude some types of crimes and there can be an issue of over and under-reporting due to memory problems.
|What are some of the differences that affect whether someone becomes a victim of crime?
|Age, gender, race/ethnicity, residential location and income level.
|What are the two main schools of Criminology?
|Classical Theory and Positivist Theory.
|The Classical theory of criminology has three subcategories, what are they?
|Biological, psychological and sociological.
|What is the Classical theory of criminology?
|Criminal behavior is rational and stems from free will. People will choose to commit crime after weighing the costs and benefits and punishment should be swift, certain and severe. Punishment should also fit the crime.
|What is the Positivist theory of criminology?
|Uses science to study the body, mind and environment of the offender. Behavior stems from social, biological, and psychological factors and science can be used to discover causes of crime, to treat offenders and prevent crime.
|What is the concept behind the Biological theory?
|It emphasizes the physiological and neurological factors that may predispose a person to commit crimes.
|What is the concept behind the Psychological theory?
|It emphasizes that crime is caused by a mental condition, a personality disturbance or limited intellect.
|What is the concept behind the Sociological theories?
|It emphasizes that crime is caused by social conditions and links criminal behavior to social class and inequality. In this theory, one would argue that those who have less wealth, status or power would be more likely to turn to crime.