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chapter 1

nutrition A science that studies the interactions between living organisms and food.
nutrients Substances in foods that provide energy and structure and help regulate body processes.
processed food A food that has been specially treated or changed from its natural state either at home or in a processing plant.
essential nutrient A nutrient that must be provided in the diet because the body either cannot make it or cannot make it in suffi- cient quantities to satisfy its needs.
fortified food Food to which one or more nutrients have been added.
enriched grains Grain products to which specific amounts of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, and iron have been added. Since 1998 folic acid has also been added to enriched grains
dietary supplement A product intended for ingestion in the diet that contains one or more of the following: vitamins, minerals, plant-derived substances, amino acids, and concentrates or extracts.
phytochemical A substance found in plant foods (phyto- means plant) that is not an essential nutrient but may have health-promoting properties.
zoochemical A substance found in animal foods (zoo- means animal) that is not an essential nutrient but may have health- promoting properties.
energy-yielding nutrient A nutri- ent that can be metabolized to provide energy in the body.
macronutrient A nutrient needed by the body in large amounts. These include water and the energy-yielding nutrients: carbo- hydrates, lipids, and proteins.
micronutrient A nutrient needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals.
organic molecule A molecule that contains carbon bonded to hydrogen. made from living organisms and can be destroyed.
inorganic molecule A molecule that contains no carbon-hydrogen bonds.
kilocalorie (kcalorie, kcal) The unit of heat used to express the amount of energy provided by foods. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water 1 degree Celsius (1 kcalorie = 4.18 kjoules).
kilojoule (kjoule, kJ) A unit of work that can be used to express energy intake and energy output. It is the amount of work required to move an object weighing 1 kg a distance of 1 m under the force of gravity (1 kjoule = 0.24 kcalorie).
homeostasis A physiological state in which a stable internal body environment is maintained.
metabolism The sum of all the chemical reactions that take place in a living organism.
malnutrition Any condition resulting from an energy or nutri- ent intake either above or below that which is optimal.
undernutrition Any condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake below that which meets nutritional needs.
overnutrition Poor nutritional status resulting from an energy or nutrient intake in excess of that which is optimal for health.
genes Units of a larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits.
nutritional genomics or nutrigenomics The study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health.
nutrient density An evaluation of the nutrient content of a food in comparison to the calories it provides
scientific method The general approach of science that is used to explain observations about the world around us.
hypothesis An educated guess made to explain an observation or to answer a question.
theory An explanation based on scientific study and reasoning.
epidemiology The study of the interrelationships between health and disease and other factors in the environment or lifestyle of different populations.
correlation Two or more factors occurring together.
case-control study A type of observational study that com- pares individuals with a particu- lar condition under study with individuals of the same age, sex, and background who do not have the condition.
human intervention study or clinical trial A study of a population in which there is an experimental manipulation of some members of the population; observations and measurements are made to determine the effects of this manipulation.
experimental group In a scientific experiment, the group of participants who undergo the treatment being tested.
control group In a scientific exper- iment, the group of participants used as a basis of comparison. They are similar to the participants in the experimental group but do not receive the treatment being tested.
depletion-repletion study A study that feeds a diet devoid of a nutrient until signs of defi- ciency appear and then adds the nutrient back to the diet to a level at which symptoms disappear.
balance study A study that com- pares the total amount of a nutrient that enters the body with the total amount that leaves the body.
variable A factor or condition that is changed in an experimen- tal setting.
placebo A fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguish- able in appearance from the real thing. It is used to disguise the control and experimental groups in an experiment.
single-blind study An experi- ment in which either the study participants or the researchers are unaware of which participants are in a control or an experimen- tal group.
double-blind study An experi- ment in which neither the study participants nor the researchers know which participants are in a control or an experimental group.
Created by: aleicia_12