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Terms and Definitions

Malware Malware is short for malicious software, meaning software that can be used to compromise computer functions, steal data, bypass access controls, or otherwise cause harm to the host computer.
TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol is the language a computer uses to access the Internet. It consists of a suite of protocols designed to establish a network of networks to provide a host with access to the Internet.
Adware Short for advertising-supported software) is a type of malware that automatically delivers advertisements. Common examples of adware include pop-up ads on websites and advertisements that are displayed by software.
Bot Bots are software programs created to automatically perform specific operations.
Bug A flaw produces an undesired outcome. These flaws are usually the result of human error and typically exist in the source code or compilers of a program.
Ransomware A form of malware that essentially holds a computer system captive while demanding a ransom. The malware restricts user access to the computer either by encrypting files and forces the user to pay the malware creator to remove the restrictions.
Rootkit A type of malicious software designed to remotely access or control a computer without being detected by users or security programs.
Spyware A type of malware that functions by spying on user activity without their knowledge. These spying capabilities can include activity monitoring, collecting keystrokes, data harvesting (account information, logins, financial data), and more.
Trojan Horse A Trojan horse, commonly known as a “Trojan,” is a type of malware that disguises itself as a normal file or program to trick users into downloading and installing malware. Gives a malicious party remote access to an infected computer. (keylogging, etc)
Virus A form of malware that is capable of copying itself and spreading to other computers. Viruses often spread to other computers by attaching themselves to various programs and executing code when a user launches one of those infected programs.
Worm Among the most common types of malware. They spread over computer networks by exploiting operating system vulnerabilities. Worms typically cause harm to their host networks by consuming bandwidth and overloading web servers.
Spam The electronic sending of mass unsolicited messages. The most common medium for spam is email, but it is not uncommon for spammers to use instant messages, texting, blogs, web forums, search engines, and social media.
Root Cause Analysis A method of problem solving used for identifying the root causes of faults or problems.
Hacktivism A computer hacker whose activity is aimed at promoting a social or political cause.
Social Engineering An attack vector that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves tricking people into breaking normal security procedures
Biometrics Refers to authentication techniques that rely on measurable physical characteristics that can be automatically checked. There are several types of biometric identification schemes: face: the analysis of facial characteristics.
Honeypot A computer security mechanism set to detect, deflect, or, in some manner, counteract attempts at unauthorized use of information systems.
Metadata Defined as the data providing information about one or more aspects of the data; it is used to summarize basic information about data which can make tracking and working with specific data easier.
Steganography The practice of concealing messages or information within other non-secret text or data.
Shareware Software that is available free of charge and often distributed informally for evaluation, after which a fee may be requested for continued use.
Malicious Code Term used to describe any code in any part of a software system that is intended to cause undesired effects, security breaches or damage to a system.
DDOS DDoS is short for Distributed Denial of Service. A type of DOS attack where multiple compromised systems, which are often infected with a Trojan, are used to target a single system causing a Denial of Service (DoS) attack.
Log files A record kept by many applications and operating systems of various activities by saving to a file
Mail Server A server on a network that processes incoming and outgoing electronic communications, especially email.
Master File Table Contains substantial metadata about all files in a given volume, including file physical locations, MAC dates (times), file permissions, file size, the file’s parent directory, entry modification time, and at times, the entire content of small files.
Memory Cache Also known as RAM cache, it is high-speed memory designed to store frequently accessed or recently accessed data for quick use. On the Macintosh, RAM cache may also be disk cache.
Network A group of computers electronically linked so as to be able to share files or other resources, or for electronic communication. The World Wide Web is a particularly large network.
PDF An Adobe Acrobat document. A common format for graphic and text files that is not easily altered. Stands for Portable Document Format.
Program Also known as an Application, or (sometimes) Software. The software used to access and create files or documents.
Unallocated The area on a hard disk or other media that is not (or is no longer) assigned to a file by the Operating System. May contain intact deleted files, remnants thereof, or other data.
Created by: fhalpin
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