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COMPUTER FORENSICS

BASIC TERMS of COMPUTER FORENSICS

TermDefinition
BIT Short for binary digit - the smallest unit of information - in the form of a 1 or a 0 )
BOOKMARK A feature that enables the user to designate favorite sites for fast and easy access
BYTE A group of 8 bits
Central Processing Unit The main chip within a computer which handles most of the computer operations - AKA - CPU
Cluster A group of Sectors in groups of two
Cookies Files placed on a computer from a visited website that are used to track visits to and usage of that site.
File Stack The area that begins at the end of the last sector that contains logical data and terminates at the end of the cluster
Firewall Hardware or software designed to protect intusions into an internet network
Hacking A term frequently used to refer to performing an unauthorized computer or network intrusion
Hard Disk Drive Typically the main storage location within a computer and is usually where the operating system, applications, and user data are stored
Hardware Physical components of a computer
Internet Cache Portions of visited website pages placed on the local hard drive disk to facilitate quicker retrieval when a web-page is visited
Internet History An accounting of websites visited; different browsers store this information in different ways
Latent Data Areas of files and disks that are typically not apparent to the computer user but contain data
Message Digest 5 A software algorithm used to "fingerprint" a file or contents of a disk
Motherboard The main system board of a computer which delivers power, data, and instructions to computer conponents
Operating System (OS) - Windows,Mac OS, Linux, and Unix Software that provides the bridge between the system hardware and and the user
Partition A contiguous set of blocks that are defined and treated as an independent disk
Random Access Memory (RAM) The volatile memory of a computer where programs and instructions that are used are stored when power is turned off its contents AKA - RAM
Sector The smallest addressable unit of data by a hard disk drive - generally consists of 512 bytes
Software A set of instructions compiled in a program that performs a particular task
Swap File A file or defined space on a Hard Drive used to conserve RAM; data is swapped or paged to this file to free RAM for application in use
Temporary Files Files temporarily written by an application to perform a function or to provide a backup copy
Unallocated Space The unused area of a Hard Drive that the operating system(OS) file system tables sees as empty but still contains old data
Visible Data All data that the operating system is presently aware of and thus is readily accessible to the user
Power Supply Converts power from the wall outlet to a useable format for the computer and its components
System Bus Contained on the Motherboard , a complex network of wires that carry data from one hardware device to another
File System Table A predefined map of the Hard Drive
Integrated Drive Electronics (IDE) A form of Hard Drive controller
Read Only Memory (ROM) Computer chips found on the motherboard that store programs known as Firmware - used to start the boot process and configure a computer's components.
Firmware Software that is closely tied to specific hardware, and unlikely to need frequent updates
Flash Drive Another name for a ROM chip
BIOS BIOS (Basic Input/Output System)the program a personal computer's microprocessor uses to get the computer system started after you turn it on. It also manages data flow between the computer's operating system and attached devices
USB Port Universal Serial Bus: an external serial bus interface standard for connecting peripheral devices to a computer, as in USB port; USB cable
Gigabyte A measure of storage capacity equal to 2 30 power or (1024) bytes
Terabyte A measure of storage capacity equal to 2 40 power (1,099,511,627,776) bytes; 1024 gigabytes.
Input devices Give the computer instruction. Examples mouse, keyboard, joystick
Output devices Devices which obtain data from the computer. Examples are monitor, printer and speakers
Desktop The computer work environment presented to the user on the monitor
Master Boot Record Typically the first sector of a Hard Disk Drive (or a CD or USB drive)
Created by: fhalpin