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CRIM EXAM 3
|What did the speaker say about the term ‘anomie’ and how it pertained to the situation at Abu Ghraib?
|the speaker said the prison was in a state of anomie bc there was a. no chain of command b. no mechanism for filing abuse
|What did he say about the chain of command in this situation (Abu Ghraib)?
|there was no chain of command
|Did the situation at Abu Ghraib around the abuse of prisoners satisfy the definition of anomie? Why or Why not?
|yes bc the prison was normlessness so he was able to prove that the girl could not escape voluntarily demonstrating how that contributed to the abnormality
|What is the Reid Technique? What is permissible with this strategy toward those accused of crimes?
|questionable technique where police are allowed to lie to people in order to get information or a confession
|what are public order crimes?
|Consensual crimes, vice crimes, public-order, and “victimless” crimes (perps believe victims are OK w it, but victims only do it to preserve livelihood)
|What is the main issue in thinking about public order crimes?
|policing morality vs. protecting society
|Drug use: legal/ illegal
|• Commonly used in contemporary U.S. • BOTH types can create physical and/or psychological dependence
|explanations for illegal drug use
|1. economic deprivation 2. drug abuse 3. excitement
|1. strong correlation betw. illegal drug use & other types of crime 2. teens are involved in delinquency FIRST then --> consume drugs
|how much do people earn while selling drugs?
|$7-8 per hour w exceptional nights ---> not that great
|why do ppl choose to sell drugs over getting a conventional job?
|believe there is no DIGNITY in a conventional minimum wage job (Borgois)
|reasons for entering prostitution
|1. runaways 2. drift into it 3. involved in other sex work (ex. strippers) 4. recruited by pimps 5. false ads 6. "survival sex" 7. history of abuse 8. teen involvement became a major role
|legalization debate of drugs
|1. alcohol model 2. laissez-faire model 3. decriminalizing certain drugs
|alcohol model of legalization debate of drugs
|legalize ALL drugs but have GOV REGS.
|laissez-faire model of legalization debate of drugs
|legalize ALL drugs w NO GOV REGS.
|decriminalizing certain drugs model of legalization debate of drugs
|Ex. legalizing WEED or only only criminalizing the SALE of drugs
|harm reduction approach
|seeing public crime as a HEALTH PROBLEM instead of a crime a. orgs. giving out sterile needles b. condoms to prostitutes + free screenings
|Modern-day slavery involving the use of force, fraud, or coercion to obtain some type of commercial sex.
|in which city is sex trafficking high in TX?
|are hate crimes acts of violence or more than that?
|hate crimes include acts of violence but are also crimes that specifically target someone based on certain characteristics & have evidence of victimizing bc of discriminatory motives (ex. desecration of Jewish headstones)
|o A. He was offered a ride by 3 white males o B. They spray painted his face black & dragged him from the back of the truck until they decapitated him o C. June 7, 1998—midnight
|o A. Bicyclist found his body almost dead o B. 2 men told him they were gay & he said he was too so he went w them o C. He was beaten & died from his injuries 5 days later o D. Oct. 9, 1998 o E. Spawned key federal hate crime legislation
|o A. White supremacist o B. Killed 9 black ppl in Charleston, S.C. in a church o C. Journaled hate on blacks o D. Wanted to start a “race war” o E. Chose that church bc of its importance to the comm. o F. Said blacks raped white women
|james jackson -- NY stabbing
|o A. White army vet intent on killing black men o B. Hated black men w white women o C. Victim: Timothy Caughan (66) killed w a sword o D. Traveled to NY to maximize media coverage
|what is the main reason ppl are victimized w hate crimes according to the NCVS data?
|Interchangeability of victims
|victims are RANDOMLY chosen bc it is not personal (a specific victim is not needed---could have been anyone) rather an attack on the group the victim is a part of
|o Personal gain, employee theft + pilferage
|examples of occupational WCC
|♣ Fraud in professions (ex. Overbilling) ♣ Financial fraud (ex. Insider trading) ♣ Police & political corruption ♣ Embezzlement
|o Done w support or encouragement of corporation; ultimately benefits corporation
|examples of organizational WCC (financial)
|• Corporate fraud, cheating, corruption • Ex. Enron
|examples of organizational WCC (violence)
|• Workers and unsafe workplaces • Consumers and unsafe products • Ex. Ford Pinto
|offender based approach of WCC
|pertaining to characteristics of the actor/offender (Sutherland)
|offense based approach of WCC
|based on nature of illegal act (Benson & Simpson)
|sutherland's definition of WCC & what did he focus on?
|o WCC is a crime committed my someone of respectability & high status in the course of his occupation o Offender based focused on characteristics of the offender/actor
|o Overstated earnings than in reality & failed to report losses cost investors & stockholders lots of $$$.
|o : Ford decided to sell defective cars even when they knew they had something wrong bc they DID THE MATH & found that the lawsuits that would come w it would cost less than it would be to fix the cars.
|what has higher costs, WCC or Street Crime?
|WCC a. higher economic loss b. greater # of estimated deaths (• Illness & injury • Unnecessary surgery • Environment pollution • All bc of the workplace)
|who does sex trafficking tend to exploit?
|foster kids & runaways
|what is promised to those involved (victimized) by sex trafficking?
|food, shelter, protection
|most hate crimes are perpetuated by people
|under 25 y/o
|typology of prostitution
|1. call girls 2. escorts 3. brothel worker 4. massage parlor worker 5. casino or bar worker 6. street worker
|siegel Definition of hate crimes
|acts of violence
|harlow definition of hate crimes
|includes acts of violence, but says anything can be turned into a hate crime if it is done w the purpose of hate
|culture of hate: what main effect does this have on society regarding hate crime?
|a. a person's affiliation continues to provide a basis for dehumanizing + insulting treatment of others
|commit the most hate crimes
|most susceptible audience for hate crimes
|young ppl bc not experienced w the world
|types of hate crimes
|1. thrill-seeking 2. defensive 3. mission
|thrill-seeking hate crimes
|MOST COMMON; mostly vandalizing & damaging property; committing crimes for the thrill & approval of others
|defensive hate crimes
|perpetrator feels threatened & feels they need to protect self + community; sense of entitlement (NY stabbing)
|mission hate crimes
|LEAST COMMON; perp. feels need to rid world of 'evil' by disposing of despised group; sense go high-order purpose (hitler/dylann roof)
|hate crime statistics act
|1990: required that hate crime data now be systematically collected a. prejudice b. importantly violent crimes but incl. damage to property
|1. males more likely to be victims of hate crime than women 2. people of 2 or more races more likely to be victims of hate crime 3. young people (12-24) more likely to be hate crime victims 4. low income HH more likely hate crime victims
|according to NCVS, what is main type if corroborating evidence of a hate crime
|1. use of derogatory/hate language
|explanations of WCC
|o American dream: economic success o Capitalism o Corporate culture and learning theories
|prevention of WCC
|o Increase media coverage o Budgets for regulatory agencies o Compliance vs deterrence a. Compliance: Tends to give incentives to obey law b. Deterrence: Invoke harsh punishments
|does economic depravation explain WCC?
|no bc most perpetrators are wealthy or financially secure
|corporations and market are are embedded in political-legal agreements (what they can and cannot do)
|individuals are embedded in orgs. & structure of it affect behavior
|political action committee; organization of individuals whose purpose is to raise & distribute campaign funds to candidates running for public office
|trying to influence the votes of members of the legislative body face-to-face
|When an individual “knowingly and willingly inflicted unnecessarily severe corporal punishment” or “unnecessary physical suffering” upon child or children.
|Involves a variety of charges ranging from relatively non-specific ones “assault and battery to with intent to gratify sexual desires” to more specific and detailed charges of “fondling and touching in an obscene manner”.
|Refers to cases in which the court found a child to have no proper parental care or guardianship •destitute or homeless or living in a physically dangerous environment •Neglect reflects a judgment that the behavior reps. a serious omission by parents
|widom's study design
|Cycle of violence may refer to abuse as a child leading to the abuse as a parent (many do not later engage in violence) Or child abuse can lead to delinquent behaviors (violent acts) oseparated the abused groups & neglected groups; prospective study.
|widom's main findings
|found that those who had experienced physical abuse & neglect showed higher levels of violence in adulthood. It also found that those who had been sexually abused did not show elevated violence in adulthood--sexual abuse not supported in cycle of abuse.
|underesearched topics of prostitution
|1. customers & managers (LEAST KNOWN) 2. male & trans workers 3. indoor prostitution 4. legal prostitution
|legalization debate of prostitution
|pro: reduce STD spread; con: increase prostitution (focus on child abuse)
|business crimes WCC
|is side purpose
|con games WCC
|is main purpose
|involves concealment or guile a. know there is a problem & choose to deceive + cover it up
|ex. lying on taxes
|abuses of trust WCC
|institutions, etc. towards the consumers
|involves abuse of trust
|who is the WCC offender?
|white; high status; male; HS grad; (27% college grad); employed; 40 median age
|monopolies & unfair business practices (white; male; 53(oldest); 40% college degree)
|more diverse but mostly white, males, 31 y/o, 13% college degree
|features of WCC
|1. legitimate access 2. spatial separation from victim (talking on phone, inputing or omitting data on computer) 3. superficial appearance of legitimateness (seems routine job)
|techniques for committing WCC
|1. deception 2. abuse of trust (agent---client r.ship) 3. concealment & conspiracy (hide that any crime happened)
|characteristics of hate crimes
|1. excessively brutal 2. multiple offenders tend to be involved 3. interchangeability of victims
|system responses-----victims' concerns aren't being taken seriously by system after attack
|financial wrongdoing (guest speaker)
|acts that violate 1. law or intent of law 2. public's understanding Acts that violate a law or the intent of a law established by government or nongovernmental agencies responsible for corporate financial oversight
|was enron due to a 'few bad apples' (guest speaker)
|no bc everyone was in on it & its unlikely that a few people's morals changed and went down
|what creates conditions for financial wrongdoing (guest speaker)
|changes in social structure
|derivative (guest speaker)
|contracts on projected value of underlying commodity (houses, cars, food, etc.)
|more risk =
|what role did deregulation play in the housing crisis?
|deregulation was what allowed the crisis to happen
|What was the net result of the financial crisis in terms of trust in banks?
|distrust of banks
|Do people tend to go to jail for corporate wrongdoing or do they tend to be addressed through civil suits and financial penalties?
|Tend to be addressed thru civil suits & financial penalties
|2009 matthew shepherd & james byrd, jr. hate crimes prevention act
|expands 1969 federal hate crime law to include crimes motivated by victims' actual or perceived gender, sexual orientation, or disability or religious affiliation
|hate language in hate crimes
|hate symbols in hate crimes
|hate crimes is _______ vs homicide is __________
|interracial; same race
|thrasher gang definition
|group formed spontaneously & integrated thru conflict------illegal activity not mentioned
|miller gang definition
|defined gang more in terms of its organization characteristics & dynamics
|finn-aage esbensen gang definition
|involvement of illegal acts is CENTRAL ELEMENT
|history of gangs
|1. 1920s-1940s: turf 2. 1950s: teen gangs 3. 1960s: drugs
|vertical/hierarchical gang org.
|horizontal gang org.
|multiple sets & leaders (like the Black Kings of "Gang Leader for a Day") ex. Bloods & Crips
|gang violence NCVS
|cycle of violence
|widom: hypothesis---when abused kids become abusers & when victims of violence become violent offenders (delinquents)
|widom's study design
|prospective; cohort design; same SES but separated on if they had been abused OR neglected
|suport for cycle of violence lim. to phys. abuse & neglect but NOT sexual abuse; higher levels of violence in adult. if experiences abuse & neglect; sex abuse did not show high violence level in adults
|when individuals knowingly and willfully inflict pain upon a child (person)
|non-specific: assault & battery w intent to gratify sexual desires specific: fondling and touching in obscene manner
|child has no proper care from parent; destitute or homeless; behavior reps. serious omission by the parents or guardians (case has gone to court)
|are most ppl w mental illness dangerous?
|threat-control override symptoms
|(feeling threatened) when mentally ill ppl feel this mental illness & violence is linked but otherwise it is NOT
|are financial wrongdoings legal?
|can be illegal or legal thru loopholes
|are gangs organized around violence?
|thrasher: no illegal activity mentioned in def miller: focuses more on characteristics of structure & dynamics finn-aage: illegal acts are main element
|common couple violence
|where husband/and or wife have occasional outbursts
|systematic male violence to service patriarchal control; male resorts to terrorism to keep his role as the dominant one (not always w violence-----economic subordination, threats, isolation, etc); men think they have a "right" to control women
|what Ts do clinard & yeager use to explain WCC?
|learning Ts (corp. environment can shape behavior)& neutralization T
|did the soldiers involved i the Abu Gharib prison have PTSD?
|what helps to make ppl intervene in situations?
|Having a better mechanism for people to report or get higher authorities’ backing where if they intervene they won’t be persecuted, thrown out or shot down.
|what is the role of social ties among those serving together (abu gharib)
|a. Social ties in these groups limits the people who are witnesses to these awful acts from reporting. Social bonds are very important in war and if someone rats on the group, they will be shunned.
|canada 1998; massacred female students at a university bc he believed they took his spot in the engineering school he got rejected from
|NY stabbing is an example of a
|defensive hate crime
|dylan roof case is an example of a
|mission hate crime
|a class example of a thrill seeking hate crime was
|the high schoolers who were looking for international college students to harass by punching them in the face when they approached them to help w directions
|was natural gas a derivative for enron?
|contracts on the projected (future) value of an underlying commodity (food, houses, cars) ex. projected value of corn
|r.ship between violence & mental illness only occurs when mentally ill ppl feel threatened otherwise it is not related
|public order crimes have _________ consequences
|violence against women act
|1994; right to be free from crimes of violence motivated by gender