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CJ 2 - Vocabulary

Various vocabulary words discussed during Criminal Justice 2

QuestionAnswer
Actual Possession Physically having and being in control of something
Actus Reus The guilty act of the crime
Canon of Construction A rule in the court that guides the understanding of other rules/laws
Concurrence Having both actus reus and mens rea
Conduct Behavior and mental state
Constructive Possession The control of something even if one doesn't physically have it
Criminal Liability Someone is responsible for a crime when he or she had criminal intent
Criminal Negligence Recklessly acting without reasonable caution of another's well-being
Deadly Weapon Doctrine The intent to kill or cause serious bodily harm with a weapon
Elements of Crime The basic components of a crime
General Intent The assumed intent of the defendant
Inference Conclusions drawn from facts
Jury Instructions Directions given by a judge to a jury
Knowing Behavior Doing something with an awareness
Knowing Possession Having something you're not supposed to and knowing it
Legislative History The history of meetings and intents on particular legislative statute
Mens Rea The mental state of a crime
Mere Possession Having something you're not supposed to without knowing
Motive The "why" of a crime
Omission to Act Intentional or unintentional failure to act
Reckless Behavior Acting and increasing risk of harm
Scienter Guilty knowledge
Specific Intent Particular intention to do something
Strict Liability Blame without fault or intentions
Strict Liability Crime Responsibility of a crime without fault or harmful intentions
Transferred Intent When something is meant for one person and affects the other, the perpetrator is still liable
Affirmative Defense The perpetrator is not denying the fact they committed the crime, and even offering excuses or defenses as to why they committed said crime
Alter Ego Rule Requires the defendant to step/walk in the shoes of the person to determine if deadly force was necessary
Apparent Danger An obvious display of danger, possibly a physical threat
Castle Exception One can act upon an immediate threat using deadly force in their home, a place of retreat
Consent If the victim consented to the injury or the possibility of injury, it is justified
Deadly Force Force intended to or resulting in death or serious bodily harm
Defense The defendant or the attorney's attempt to show why the person should not be charged with the crime(s)
Excuse The defendant's account as to why they shouldn't be held liable under that law
Execution-of-Public-Duty Defense Protection of law enforcement employees and public employees who were just doing their jobs
Express Consent A verbal agreement to be involved in the action (such as sex)
Fleeing Felon Rule (Now defunctional law) that allows an officer to shoot a suspect who is/could be a felon trying to flee arrest
Justification The defendant says, "I did it," but for the lesser of two evils
Necessity It was necessary to commit a criminal act to prevent a worse/greater one
Perfect Self-Defense A defense that meets all the requirements/criteria in order to validate their claims
Reasonable Force An appropriate amount of force given the situation
Reasonable Person A person who serves as comparative
Retreat Rule If you are attacked, avoid the attack
Self Defense Every individual has the right of self-protection
Stand Your Ground Reasonable use of deadly force to protect life or limb
Arrest Warrant A document issued by a judge authorizing a (specific) search or seizure
Preliminary Hearing A hearing to determine if there is enough evidence for a trial
Initial Appearance The alleged criminal is brought before a judge and explained their charges and rights
Arraignment A judge reads the formal charges against the defendant/the defendant enters a plea
Misdemeanor A minor wrongdoing/punishable by fine or less than one year in jail
Felony A major wrongdoing/more than one year in jail
Indictment A formal accusation that someone has committed a crime
Grand Jury A time consuming jury selected to validate accusations before a trial
Information A sworn statement by the prosecution saying there is enough evidence for a trial
Verdict The decision made by a jury in trial
Hung Jury A jury that cannot decide on a verdict
Mistrial Something happened in/during trial, and they have to start the entire process over
Petit Jury A group of citizens who hear evidence during a trial
Opening Statements The first time a jury has to hear from either party
Cross Examination One party questioning the other's witnesses
Bench Trial A judge jury, without citizens
Legal Objections Raised by an attorney during a trial objecting to a statement or question
Closing Arguments Concluding statement of each party's council
Deliberation A careful consideration by the jury
Foreperson The head juror
Sentencing The decision upon imprisonment or fine
Created by: snownana