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Criminology Exam #2

Criminology

TermDefinition
sampson collective effficacy
collective efficacy n.hoods ability to maintain social order citizens do n.hood watchers or complain to authorities
social disorganization crime rises when social control is no longer maintained by n.hoods or institutions bc r.ships have broken down----inability to realize community's common values
physical disorder physical tellings of crime & disorder ex. syringes, abandoned buildings and cars, graffiti, litter
social disorder social tellings of crime ex. prostitution, selling drugs, public drinking & fighting
concentrated poverty areas w high poverty------40% of pop. living under poverty line
broken windows theory n.hoods w disorder and decay that invite crime
durkheim crime as normal in societies
durkheim's anomie normlessness = break down in social rules-----society can no longer regulate peoples' natural appetites
durkheim's traditional society uniformity, independent, self-sufficient, custom & habit, lack of political leadership, don't welcome outsiders
durkheim's organic society interdependence, diversity, law regulates transactions
crime in traditional society crime is normal bc w/o it society would be pathologically over controlled, law enforces uniformity----repress deviance
crime in an organic society law regulates transactions and restitutes for wrongful transactions----crime occurs if there is no regulation
merton's anomie social malintegration, dissociation betw. society's values & legit means to meet those ends
merton's typology of 5 adaptation to cultural goals & institutional means 1. conform 2. innovate 3. ritualism 4. retreatism 5. rebellion
conformist fits w society's goals and means
innovate fits w society's goals but thru diff means (ex. cheating)
ritualism follows society's goals to ''play it safe'' w/o any real passion to follow those goals
retreatism dropping out of society but have commitment to society's goals yet give up bc no real possibility of success ex. psychos, autistics, pariahs, drunkards, and addicts
rebellion have diff goals than society's goals out of frustration
status frustration cohen---working-class males become delinquents to rebel against middle-class values : better understand less-serious type of delinquency
strain T and gang delinquency young ppl look for status but can't find it anywhere else but in gangs
how well have strain T based public policies worked? not too well, main goal of War on Poverty is to decrease it but main goal has been distorted to serve others' self interests
american dream and crime ppl strive for american dream so will resort to deviant means in order to achieve it if they don't have the means
what is GENERAL STRAIN T? AGNEW : crime as a way to cope w strains----micro-level
3 types of strain 1. failure to achieve valued goals 2. removal of positively valued stimuli 3. confrontation w negatively valued stimuli
why do ppl engage in crime? 1. cope w strains/stress 2. reduce/escape strains 3. revenge 4. target vulnerable ppl
3 major domains of strains 1. objective 2. subjective 3. vicarious
objective universally disruptive
subjective varies from person to person
vicarious experiencing a strain that is happening to someone else (thru them)
which strains more likely to lead to crime? those seen as UNJUST, HIGH IN MAGNITUDE, ASSOC. W LOW SOCIAL CONTROL, or CREATE INCENTIVE/ P TO ENGAGE IN CRIME
is GST applicable in explaining all types of crimes? No, mostly only street crime
what is a 'storyline' in Agnew's T (GST)? events & conditions that increase the likelihood of a crime or series of related crimes
social capital network
fast social change = crime increases------durkheim
the price society pays for progress crime
durkheim---suicide rates increase when economic decline AND growth
in modernization property crime and violent crime increases & decreases
merton emphasizes strain T on financial
agnew emphasizes strain T on various
strengths of GST demonstrates diff. stressors
limitations of GST most tested in relation to street crimes
why are some ppl more likely to cope w stress thru crime? 1. low resources 2. low cost of crime 3. predisposed to crime
messner & rosenfeld macro-level T national differences in serious crimes
phrenology Gall; study of skulls' shapes that determined personality & could predict criminality; ''bump and grumps''
atavism tb to a more primitive bio state (LAMBROSO) 1. criminals = less dev, 2. prisoners as primitives bc of measurements he took 3. ''born criminals''
constitutional T: body types & crime Sheldon : 1. endomorph (soft & round + relaxed & social) 2. ectomorph (thin, long, slender + more shy) 3. mesomorph (athletic & muscular & short---DELINQUENCY) 4. balanced (avg. build)
tarde criminals are NORMAL but their ENVIRONMENT TAUGHT THEM CRIME, imitation (vs. Lambroso's ''born criminals'')
learning T focus on how crime is learned thru association & environment
3 basic ways ppl learn thru association 1. classical conditioning 2. operant conditioning (reinforcement & punishment) 3. behaviorist school (vicarious; combine operant w cognitive)
sutherland differential association T ----- 9 theoretical propositions
key proposition out of the 9 #6 : ppl become delinquents bc of excess of definitions favorable to violations of law over definitions unfavorable to the violation of law
9 theoretical props of differential association T (1-4) 1. criminal behavior is learned 2. criminal behavior learned thru communication & interaction w others 3. intimate personal groups most influence learning criminal behavior 4. when criminal behavior is learned, techniques & dir, of motives/attitudes
9 theoretical props of differential association T (5-8) 5. dir. of motives/attitudes is learned from defs of legal codes as favorable or unfavorable to law violation 7. diff assocs. vary in freq,duration, priority, intensity, age 8. learning criminal behavior uses same mechanisms used in any other learning
9 theoretical props of differential association T (9) 9.crime is expression of needs & values but don't explain crime EX. the need for $ can be achieved legally and illegally
What is a problem for learning theory? Research tends to focus on delinquency, do “bird of a feather flock together”, doesn’t focus on the underlying structural conditions
What is the evidence for learning theory? Matsueda tested it and wrote a book about it.
what was Sutherland's legacy to criminology? criminal behavior is normal learned behavior
what is the definition of the situation? why does it matter for C&D? variations in learned behavior can affect how sit. is perceived = ppl act differently to same sit.
what is violentization? process by which abused children become aggressive adults and continues cycle onto their children-----4 stages
4 stages of violentization 1. brutalization 2. belligerence 3. violent performances 4. virulency
brutalization a. violent subjugation: victimization of person b. personal horrification: victimizing victim's close ppl c. violent coaching: teaching victim violence in social situations
belligerence victim decides to not be victimized any longer and wants to take control of their bad situation
violent performances ex-victim uses new approach by engaging in violence when prompted
virulency results after victories where the subject is now seen as a violent person
seductions of crime focus on meaning of crime for the criminal than on traditional focus of criminals' background
zimbardo argued ppl & situations are in "state of dynamic interaction" where situation transforms character of person----systems of power (propaganda)
neutralization T need to neutralize feels of guilt &shame caused by deviance to commit crime
5 techniques of neutralization 1. denial of responsibility 2. denial of injury 3. denial of victim 4. condemnation of condemners 5. appeal to higher loyalties
denial of responsibility believe behavior is out of their control--peer pressure
denial of injury reasoning that no one will get hurt---victimless
denial of victim person deserved it so they're not a victim
condemnation of condemners questioning motives & integrity of authority
appeal to higher loyalties reasons crime feels necessary EX. stealing food to feed fam
NT says N happens before committing crime
IRL tho N happens after committing crime for some crimes
employee theft 1. pilferage 2. embezzlement
pilferage take something from workplace EX. steal a stapler
embezzlement stealing funds entrusted to you
fringe benefit commonly accepted bc seen as compensation or perk of the job
dabneys nurse study overview nurses leaned rationalization from work group to excuse deviant behavior 1. OTC drugs are ok to take 2. non-narcotic meds ok to take bc patient is not harmed & from excess 3. narcotic meds NOT ok to take
convicted rapists' vocab research 1. rape is learned behavior---learned sexual aggression towards women 2. admitters = excuses 3. deniers = justifications
excuses admit act was bad but deny full responsibility (accident, bio drive, was scapegoated, alcohol/drugs, emo. probs, NICE GUY IMAGE)----admitters
justifications accept responsibility for act but deny it was wrong---deniers (women as seductress, mean yes when say no, most will relax & enjoy, not too bad, nice girls don't get raped) DENIAL OF VICTIM
admitters knew they did something bad but GAVE EXCUSES
deniers did not see the act as rape and gave JUSTIFICATIONS
''drift'' Matza: state of limbo where youths move in and out of delinquency + embrace conventional and deviant values in lifestyles
control T all of us are naturally deviant but society's social bonds controls us & are what keeps us from committing crime
social control T HIRSCHI; social bonds control us from doing crime 1. attachment 2. commitment 3. involvement 4. belief
social control T: delinquency results when bonds are weak or broken
attachment social bonds---affectional ties to others MOST SUPPORTED
commitment investment in conventional lines of action (education or vocational aspirations) SUPPORTED
involvement preoccupation w activities promoting society's interests----conventional activities LEAST SUPPORTED
belief belief in society's conventional values and norms
strengths of social control T can be clearly tested-----idea that bonds matter
limitations of social control T ties matter not only to just society but the ppl you associate with
self control T AKA THE GENERAL T OF CRIME: attempts to explain all types of crime; low self control = crime; child rearing up to 8 is very important GOTTFREDSON & HIRSCHI
strengths of self control T single concept
limitations of self control T tautology: needless repetition of an idea, true by virtue of its logical form (circular reasoning) & generality
policy implications of social bond T focus on bonds-----social bonds will reduce crime; even ex-convincts can improve by getting jobs & having fam to prevent return to crime
policy implications of self control T focus on child rearing up to 8; it is too late for prisoners to change; assumes self control is stable throughout lifetime
life course T risk factors may matter differently at different stages of life
life course T: homotypic doing same behavior over time
life course T: heterotypic could be continuity in deviance but may turn into diff types at different ages; You are always engaged in deviant behavior, but the different types change overtime
age-graded informal social control adults = work adolescents = school
what is a turning point? change in C&D; turning point in transition or pathway away from crime (marriage, military, parenthood, employment, etc.)
desistance end
what is a trajectory? long term pattern of behavior
what is a transition? life event that could be a turning point (marriage, graduation, etc)
what is cumulative continuity? getting wrapped in crime adds up; accumulation of disadvantage due to criminal activity in criminal justice system
what is a career criminal? chronic offender; someone who engages in a lot of high level crime for a long time
what is a criminal career? involvement in crime begins at some point in that person's life and continues for some time until it ends
what is the age-crime curve? younger = persistence in crime older = desistance in crime lower propensity to crime mean less crime rate thruout & vice versa for high propensity to crime
What is the debate about research design and assumptions about crime? (longitudinal vs. cross-sectional research) debate on age-crime relationship 1. longitudinal: expensive; follows same indivs over time 2. cross-sectional: cheaper;compares diff indivs at same time
what is prevalence? overall portion of pop. that offends
onset peaks at 8-14
desistance peaks at 20-29
the earlier the age of onset the more crimes are committed & for a longer time
individuals can still change even tho antisocial behavior in childhood is highly correlated with C&D
a small portion of the pop. commits a large portion of crime
doesn't help to focus on ''specialized offenders'' bc most offenders are versatile
most crime during teens is done w others while crime done as adult is done solo
what motivates offending during teen years? nonutalitarian factors (boredom; excitement)
what motivates offending during adulthood? pecuniary gain or revenge
criminals tend to __________ first and later __________ diversify & specialize
job stability protects against excessive drinking in early adulthood and decreases crime
___________ is more effective than job stability marriage (attachment to spouse)
common elements of turning points 1. ''knifing off the past'' 2. provision of supervision but also opportunities of support 3. bring change to routine activities 4. opportunity for ''ID transformation''
what protected henry in course example? military
what protected leon is course example? marriage
eventually everyone desists from crime (sampson and laub)
labeling T emphasis is on societal reaction; once you are treated a certain way by others you play out that behavior
stigma mark of disgrace by society
symbolic interaction social construction: society creates meaning---how you perceive it determines how you will respond
''looking glass self'' Cooley: seeing yourself as others see you
self fulfillig-prophecy Merton: living up to the label
consequences of labeling BECKER: not behavior that matters but label that does
typology of deviant behavior 1. pure deviant: acts deviant & seen as deviant 2. conforming: is not deviant & not seen as deviant 3. falsely accused: is not a deviant but seen as one 4. secret deviant: not seen as deviant but is deviant
becker typology of deviant behavior
lemert primary and secondary deviance & labeling is a normal part of human reasoning in a complex world
primary deviance individuals behavior becomes labeled societal behavior
secondary deviance individuals behavior becomes further deviant and is more organized & coherent bc they have been labeled ex. person gets called a stoner so they smoke more
strengths of labeling T 1.shows informal and formal social control role in behavior 2.DEVIANCE AMPLIFICATION
deviance amplification labeling leads to further deviance
limitations of labeling T tends to disregard that labeling T does not explain the start of deviance which may affect its cont.
reintegrative shaming allows offenders back in society but lets them know they are in the wrong; maintain bonds betw. shamers & shamed; leads to lower crime rates (ex. job programs for ex-cons)
disintegrative shaming stigma; unforgiving---isolates offender from society; leads to higher crime rates
what is a restorative justice? system of criminal justice that focuses on rehab of offender & reconciliation betw. them and victims + community; apologizing, paying back, assuming responsibility
reflected appraisal ppl think of themselves how others think of them
reflected appraisals affect both genders but stronger for males
conflict approach marx & engels: disagreement in norms reflecting power & wealth inequality
consensus approach durkheim: agreement in norms; provides punishment to deviance to promote social stability
criminalization will be greatest when oppressors have most power and resistors are virtually powerless
groups that commit most crime Vold: minority power groups bc have to fight for power
falsification of T (bernard) tests the assumptions of T w empirical research; when T's claims are inconsistent w data it is falsified
theoretical integration (bernard) draws from diff Ts to create more encompassing T
Elliott argued early integration of strain, control, and learning T to explain delinquency & drug use
Hirschi argued back against integration bc T are contradictory & have incompatible assumptions
Elliott argued back that any given traditional T can account for 10-20% of the variance in crime therefore each T accounts for a small contribution to explain crime
thornberry interactional T: blends social control T w social learning perspectives where weak social controls primarily lead to C&D but also require an interactive setting where C&D id learned, reinforced, & performed
social support key theme in integration; "perceive/actual instrumental or expressive provisions supplied by the community, social networks, & confiding partners."; help from community or close ties; more social support = less C&D
criminalization powerful vs powerless
Vold's crime definition behavior committed by minority power groups whose regular actions and goals have not been secured by law; those who reject majority view tend to be criminalized
bernard & snipes on T integration 1.focus on variables than on Ts 2.Ts should be eval. to use sci. process not validity 3.shift from falsification to accepeting some factors contr. a lil 4.agree w Hirschi that some Ts are contradict. & can't be combo 5.disagree that certain Ts contradict
problem in learning T focuses on delinquency and association but not in underlying structural conditions
Created by: daisy98