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Term used to describe a nosebleed Epistaxis
Difficulty breathing dyspnea
Cessation of breathing apnea
increased respiratory Rate Tachypnoea
increased respiratory rate and depth. Hyperpnoea
Pneumothorax is air within the thoracic cavity and can be caused by the following: trauma to the thoracic wall _over Inflation of the lungs during IPPV (Intermittent positive Pressure ventilation)
is also known as panleucopenia, feline distemper or feline parvovirus feline infectious enteritis (FIE)
Felv is an infectious, incurable disease in cats and is caused by a species specific retrovirus
Hard pad is often another name for .... as this is one of the symptoms dog can be seen with canine distemper
Protozoal Zoonotic Disease of cats toxoplasmosis
define incubation period The incubation period is the time between the date of infection and the signs (appearance) of the symptoms
Define Isolation is the physical separation of the animal suspected of having or proved to have a transmissible infectious diease.
define barrier nursing creating a “barrier between the infectious animal and the nursing staff and other animals. This is usually carried out in conjunction with isolating the animal but can be done alone if not isolation facilities avaliable.
define quarantine is the compulsory isolation (with strict protocols) of animals with or potentially exposed to infectious disease. In the case of “quarantine kennels” with notable diseases such as rabies.
Why should an animal with a respiratory disease be isolated? Transmission of respiratory diseases is often by aerosol. Coughing and sneezing creates an aerosol of large numbers of water droplets loaded with micro-organisms into the atmosphere which may infect other susceptible animals sharing the same air space.
State the 5 main ways in which infection may establish itself within a new host? ◦ Ingestion via infected food/coprophagia. ◦ Inhalation. ◦ Via the skin. ◦ Via the mucous membranes of the mouth, ear, eye and sexual organs. ◦ Congenital route.
List 10 methods of disease control ◦ Isolation. ◦ Quarantine. ◦ Barrier nursing. ◦ Good ventilation (and ensuring that too many animals are not sharing the same air space). ◦ Therapy (ensure early and effective treatment of infected animals). (early treatment) ◦ Good hygiene. (ppe, w
disease pathogens and also to the incubation period - Canine Parvo virus Virus,
disease pathogens and also to the incubation period -Feline Upper respiratory Tract Disease (FURTD)/cat flu Feline Calici virus/feline Herpes virus, 1-10 days
disease pathogens and also to the incubation period - Canine Distemper Morbillivirus, 7-21 days
disease pathogens and also to the incubation period- Kennel Cough Bordetella bronchiseptica, 5-7 days
disease pathogens and also to the incubation period- Chlamydia Chlamydia psittaci,4-10 days
State 3 signs which would be displayed by a rabbit with Myxomatosis You would conjunctivitis, listlessness, anorexia and pyrexia, swollen genatilia.
Describe the terms ‘First’ and ‘Second’ Intention Healing, giving examples for each one First intension healing is healing that is typical for surgical wounds and where the edges are kept together by thing like staples or sutures. Second intention healing is where the wound is usualy cleaned, debrided and obsevered for a couple of days befo
State 3 clinical signs of the endocrine disorder Hyperthyroidism Polyphagia with weight loss, emaciation, aggression and hyperactivity, heart murmur and tachycardia, polyuria/polydispsia, vomiting and diarrhoea, high blood pressure.
the pathology of Pyometra bacteria – pus in urterus
the pathology of Cystitis bacteria
the pathology of Feline Enteritis virus – panlocopenia virus, inflammation of intestine
the pathology of Cataract obpasitic in the lens caused by trauma, age, diabetes
the pathology of Kennel Cough Bordetella bronchiseptica, parainfluenza virus, harpies virus.
Describe 2 clinical signs of a patient being presented with aural neoplasia Facial swelling, mass can be seen , irritation, feel lymph nodes, weight loss.
Describe why it is important to isolate a cat with ringworm As the condition can be transferred from animal to animal and is a contagious diease ( zoonosis diease)
Explain the terms Lavage and Surgical debridement and give an example as to when this would be necessary Surgical debridment-The removal of foreign material and devitalized tissue using a scalpel or other sharp instrument. This is done to remove the dead tissue (rta). Lavage is the washing out of an area to remove irration this is done to clean the wound.
Describe appropriate hand hygiene and why this is essential when in isolation It is important so that the bacteria can not be transferred to other animals or living animal as the condition may be infectious to them.
State the 3 phases of wound healing Inflammatory phase. Proliferation phase. Maturation/ remolding phase.
Describe the terms ‘Active’ and ‘Passive’ ventilation and give one example for each. Active ventaliation involves a mechaninal object like air condition to circulate the air in the area. Passive ventilation requires no mechanical process in circulating the air in the area like opening a window
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Renal Disease Polyuria Polydipsia Increased/decreased urination Weightloss Cystocentesis Urinalysis - Dipstick Refractometer Urinalysis SG – Normal Dog/normal cat
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Cushing’s Disease Polyuria Polydipsia Bilateral Alopecia Pot bellied appearance Thinning hair ACTH Stimulation test Dexamethasone suppression ALT raised ALKP raised Cholesterol Urinalysis – Low SG No Glucose
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Diabetes Mellitus Polyuria Polydipsia Polyphagia Weight loss Haematology and Fructosamines Urinalysis Urinalysis - Glucose Ketones Fructosamine – Serum (brown) Glucometer – Increased Glucose SG – Low
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Hyperthyroidism Polyphagia Weight Loss Hyper excitability Tachycardia Palpable goitre T4 Sample to be obtained Collected – Plain serum tube Increased -Thyroxine levels
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Addison’s Disease Anorexia, vomiting, Hypotension, weakness, bradycardia Bloods for electrolytes Plain Serum Na : K Low levels or cortisol Electrolytes
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Hypothyroidism Bilateral alopecia Pot bellied appearance Weight gain Lethargy Bradycardia Total T4 Collected – Plain serum tube Decreased -Thyroxine levels
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Hepatic Disease Hepatitis Icterus/jaundice Abdominal pain Vomiting Weight loss Fatty/pale faeces Biochemistry Bile acid stimulation test ALT raised ALP raised Albumim raised
Disease/Condition Clinical Signs Sampling techniques Tests – Normal/Abnormal Parameters for Diabetes Insipidus Marked Polyuria Marked Polydipsia Vomiting after drinking large amounts Weight loss Haematology and biochemistry Water deprivation test Urinalysis - Glucose SG – Very Dilute <1.009
Incised Clean cut caused by sharp object. (eg. Glass, scalpel blade) Bleeding may be profuse, especially if wound is large or deep
Lacerated Wound causing tearing of tissue and uneven edges (eg. Barbed wire) Bleeding is likely to be less severe than incised wound but likely to be more contaminated
Abrasion(graze) Superficial wound where full skin thickness is not penetrated Embedded dirt or foregin body may be present
Contusion Blunt blow that has ruptured capillaries below the surface May be associated with a deeper injury (eg. Fracture)
puncture Small external wound but often associated with significant deeper damage Often cause by dog or cat bite
Gunshot Nature of wound depends on gun Entry wound may be small but associated with possible significant internal damage
ideal temperature for hospital and isolation kennels 18- 23 degrees celsius
Created by: weekiel02