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Behavior

Penn Foster Vet Tech Behavior

QuestionAnswer
Behaviorism the ethological approach that states behavior is learned rather than genetically programmed
Classical conditioning the type of conditioned learning that associates stimuli occurring at approximately the same time or in roughly the same area
Classical Ethology The ethological approach asserting that much of what animals know is instinctive or innate
Conditioned Stimulus Sensory input unrelated to a simple reflex behavior
Ethology The study of animal organisms as descended from common ancestors
Evolution The scientific theory that characterizes all related organisms as descended from common ancestors
Fixed action patterns a term used by early ethologists to describe stereotypical or predictable behaviors of a species
Function In ethological terms, survival value
Habituation The process of learning that certain objects and events have little bearing on survival and can thus be ignored
Imprinting The acquisition in the very young of certain fixed action patterns
Innate Instinctive
Instinct A complex of unlearned responses characteristic of a species
Instrumental Learning Learning by trial and error
Natural Selection The process that awards survival and reproductive success to individuals and groups best adjusted to their environment
Naturalists Natural Scientists
Nature-Nurture Controversy The crux of towo opposing schools; Classical ethology, which views animal behavior as primarily instinctive, and animal psychology, which views animal behavior as primarily learned
Operant Conditioning The type of conditioned learning that associates a certain activity, kown as the operant, with punishment or reward
Operant Functioning or tending to produce effects
Postparturition After giving birth to offspring
Sensitive Period A specific stage early in an animal's life when imprinting occurs
Social Behavior The ways individual members of the same species interact with one another
Socialization The process of adapting to contact with others
Sociobiology The study of the biological bases of social behavior
Spraying Staining vertical services with strong smelling urine
Stimulus Response Theory The pschological school of thought stating that all complex forms of behavior, including emotions, thoughts, and habits are complex muscular and gladular responses that can be observed and measured
Territorial Prone to defining and defending areas of sleep, eating, exercise and play
Unconditioned Response A simple reflex behavior
Unconditioned Stimulus Sensory input that produces a simple reflex behavior
Wobble A training maneuver designed to disorient a bird by abruptly dropping the hand its perched upon
Recognition of Individuals The process that allows animals to distinguish their place in a social context broader than their relationship with primary caregivers
House soiling Urinating or defecating inside the home
Dance A complex pattern of movements performed by a bee that directs other bees to a food source
Breaking Litter Box Training When a cat urinates or defecates someplace other than its litterbox
Initial behavior modification sessions should last no more than ____ minutes 5 minutes
What is the goal of reprimanding a pet? The goal of reprimanding a pet is to associate a behavior with danger or disorientation
What is the behavior modification technique that involves elimination of a probelm behavior by completely removing the reinforcement for the behavior extinction
What do long-term pharmaceutical approaches to problem behavior usually involve Haromones
What is one of the best ways to correct a biting habit in birds Wobble
Instincts Inherited or genetically coded responses to environmental stimuli
For positive reinforcement to be effective, the pleasant event must occure within ____ seconds of the behavior 20 seconds
What is an aggression that ananimal learns to avoid an uncomfortable stimulus? conflict-related
What is a dog suffering from when he exhibits destructive behavior only when the owners are away separation anxiety
What type of aggression is an animal most likely exhibiting that doesn't give a warning or threat prior to biting? Predatory Aggression
What is the first age period for a puppy to learn fear that will affect it for the rest of its life 8-10 weeks
What do the best techniques for housbreaking involve Positive Reinforcement
When does the critical socializtion period for felines occur? Between 2 and 8 weeks of age
What should multiple-cat households have A least as many litter boxes as cats
When do pupplies and kittens learn to interact with their own species? During the Critical Period
What is the survival value of certain types of behavior often reffered to? Function
Who is considered the foremost expert on the mechanism of operant conditioning? B.F. Skinner
Briefly describe Pavlov's famous experiment in classical conditioning Pavlov discovered that dogs automatically began to salivate at the sight of food. If he always rang a bell when he offered food, the dogs began to slowly associate theis unrelated stimulus with food. In time the sound of the bell alone would cause the d
Who formulated the stimulus response theorty John B. Watson
Who was the American psychologist that originated behaviorism? John B. Watson
What theory was published in 1859, in a book entitled "On the Origin of Species?" Charles Darwin's theory of evolution
Whose theories laid the foundation for classical ethology? Charles Darwin's theories
Classical conditioning was based on whose experiments? It was based on Pavlov's experiments
What is an example of B.F. Skinner's experiments based on operant conditioning? A classic example of experiments he devised involved teaching a rat to press a bar for food
What did ethologits Niko Tinbergen, Karl von Frisch, and Konrad lorenz win a Nobel prize in 1973 They shared the Nobel Prize for their discoveries about the ways individual and social behavior patterns develop in groupings of animals
Positive Reinforcement Any immediate pleasant occurance that follows a behavior
Negative Reinforcement Anyimmediate unpleasant occurance used to create a desired behavior
Punishment It is used to decrease a behavior (rather than increase a behavior as in negative reinforcement)
Positive Punishment It involves "adding" a undesirable occurance to decrease a behavior
Negative Punishment It involves "removing" a desirable occurance to decrease a behavior
When does the critical socialization period for dogs occur? From 4 to 14 weeks
Aggression Behavior bred from an impulse to harm another being
When do puppies tend to develop fear-induced aggression? Between 8 and 10 weeks of age and near puberty
Separation Anxiety The bond is so strong that the dog feels anxiety when separated from the owner
Conflict-related Aggression Conflict-related aggression occurs when a dog is exposed to an uncomfortable or uncertain stimulus or conflict. The dog has learned that aggression will allow it to avoid the conflict and uses aggression to lessen its fear of the stimulus
Avoidance Conditioning Learning that aggression will avoid conflict
Fear-induced Aggression Fear-induced aggression occurs whenever an animal is in a position from which it cannot escape. This is the most common type of aggressin seen in animal hospitals.
Predatory Agression Instinct to hunt. Predatory aggression differs from other forms of aggression in that the animal won't first give a woarning in the form of a growl or other threatening behavior
Pain-induced Agression Aggressive behavior related to pain is a protective instinct
Inter-male Agression Male dogs and cats commonly display aggession towards each other. This natural instinct is nearly eliminated by castration
Territorial Aggression Aggressive tendencies related to territoy. Dogs have a tendency to be aggressive toweard humans that aren't family members, while cats tend to be aggressive towards other cats in their perceived territory.
Maternal Agression Rare, but a normal instinct in the postparturition period developed to protect an animal's yound from danger
What are the most common problems bird owners confront? 1. Persistant screaming or squawking 2.Biting
What are reasons a bird screams or squawks? 1. Birds usually scream at dawn and dusk 2. Distress 3. Stress form environmental noise 4. To alert owners they have forgotten to give them food or water.
What are 3 reasons that birds bite? 1. Fear 2. Excitement 3. Aggression
What are the most common problems rodent owners confront 1. Biting 2. Agression towards other rodents
What screening tool can help identify potential problems and allow the practice to provide counseling before the problem becomes life threatening? Behavioral History Form
What are 4 basic factors that apply to all forms of treatment for problem behaviors? 1. Trust 2. Reward 3. Reprimand 4. Consistancy
What are the two basic kinds of rewards? 1. Edible 2. Vocal
What are common treatment techniques for behavior modification? 1. Command-response-reward 2. Clicker training 3. Extinction 4. Aversion Therapy 5. Avoidance Therapy 6. Habituation 7. Punishment 8. Counterconditioning 9. Desensitization
Command-Response-Reward technique This technique involves giving a command and immediately rewarding the desired response everytime it is performed, until the pet responds consistantly.
Clicker Training A clicker is used to signal to the animal that it performed th right behavior and will receive a reward.
Extinction Elimination of a problem behavior by completely removing the reinforcement for the behavior. ie. begging for food-stop giving food when it begs
Aversion Therapy Creating a relationship between an unpleasant stimulus and an object that the nimal may be marking, chewing, or otherwise damaging. It is used to keep the animal away from a particular object or area. ie. double-sided sticky tape on a counter to keep cat
Avoidance Therapy The use of negative reinforcement to diminish a problem behavior. It is used to discourage the animal from displaying a particular behavior. ie. squirting dog with hose whenever he barks (dog sholdn't see owner)
Habituation Used to treat minor behavior problems. It involves surrounding the animal with stimulus causing the problem until the animal becomes acclimated to the stimulus and is no longer afraid of it.
Punishment punishment is used to eliminate an undesireable behavior, NOT used to create a desired behavior, as in negative reinforcement
Counterconditioning Replaces an undesirable behavior with a desirabe one. it takes a stimulus linded to a negativ eemotion and reconditions/counterconditions the animal by linking the stimulus to be a positive emotional response.
Desensitization Diminishing a particular behavior by gradually exposing the animal to the stimulus that produces the inappropriate response. ie. slowly introducing dog to kids
What is the most common Pharmaceutical therapy employed Harmonal therapy, which involves administration of gonadal hormones, in particular, progestin.
What are 3 other methods to treat behavior problems other than through training techniques 1. Environmental modification i.e. moving litterbox 2. Surgical Approaches i.e. spaying/neutiering 3. Pharmaceutical Therapy (last resort)
Dominance aggression Aggression that may occur when an owner attempts to assert dominance over a dog, such as by taking its food bowl or toy away
Treatment Techniques for birds 1. Move cage's location to quiet squawking 2. Cover cage for 5-10 minutes to quiet squawking
What procedure is used to train a rodent not to bite when being handled Place cage in tub 2. Lift animal from cage with a cup and place it in th tub 3. Allow the animal some time to calm down and ge used to tub 4. climb in tub with animal 5. still while animal adjusts to your presence 6. hold hand out on bottom of tub and le
Created by: cmonkey8