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Drugs

Veterinary drugs

QuestionAnswer
Heroin Class I
Morphine Class II
Merperidine Class II
Butorphanol Class II
Oxymorphone Class II
Pentobarbital Class II
Thiopental Class III
Tiletamine-zolazepam Class III
Ketamine Class III
Diazepam Class IV
Buprenorphine Class V
Examples of anticholinergics (2) atropine, glycopyrrolate
Examples of tranquilizers (3) aceptromazine, diazepam, midazolam
Examples of sedatives (4) xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, romifidine
Examples of opioids (7) hydromorphone, oxymorphone, butorphanol, morphine, meperidine, pentazocine, buprenorphine
Examples of neuroleptanalgesic combos (4) ace + oxymorphone, ace + butorphanol, xylazine + butorphanol, medetomodine + butorphanol
Examples of reversal agents (4) yohimbine, tolazoline, atipamezole, naloxone
Types of premeds (5) anticholinergics, tranquilizers, sedatives, opioids, NMDA antagonists (in cats sometimes)
Types of induction drugs (5) barbiturates, propofol, etomidate, NMDA antagonist combos, Guaifenesin
Acepromazine side effects and contraindications hypotension, antiarrhythmic, penile paralysis (stallions), lowers seizure threshold, promotes hypothermia. contra: liver disease, seizure history, dehydration, hypovolemia, shock, heart disease, young/old patients
Diazepam/midazolam side effects and contraindications hypotension if injected too fast, irritation following IM admin. contra: should not be used alone as excitement is possible
xylazine/detomidine/medetomidine/romifidine side effects and contraindications bradycardia, conduction distrubances, hypotension, arrhythmias with halothane gas, resp depression, impaired thermoreg, hyperglycemia, profound muscle relaxation max exacerbate upper resp abnormalities. contra: heart disease, young/old
opioids side effects and contraindications bradycardia that is anticholin. resp, resp depres, impaired thermo reg, hyperresponsive to external stimuli, excitement in cats and horses. contra: use with tranquilizer or sedative in cats and horses
barbiturates side effects and contraindications myocardial depression, delirium w recovery, difftocondepthanes, arrhy, hypotension, resp depress (apnea), excess salivation, laryngospasm, tissue necrosis w perivascular injection. contra: heart dis, liver dis, old/young, SIGHT HOUNDS, obese (use lean bw
ketamine/tiletamine side effects and contraindications HR and bp increase, may cause apnea when given IV, profuse salivation, muscle rigidity when used alone, convulsions with high doses. contra: never use alone EXCEPT in cats, must have good sedation before admin in horses, animals with seizure history
propofol side effects and contraindications myocardial depression, hypotension, apnea, heinz body anemia with repeat admin in cats. contra: none
guaifenesin side effects and contraindications minimal cardio and resp effects, tissue necrosis with perivascular injection
drugs that cause tissue necrosis with perivascular injection (2) guaifenesin and barbiturates (phenobarb, pentobarb, thiopental)
Examples of barbiturates phenobarb, pentobarb, thiopental
Examples of NMDA Antagonist (2) ketamine, tiletamine
Opioid antagonist (1) naloxone
Anticholinergics - about administered prior to induction to prevent bradycardia, excessive salivation and reduce upper airway secretions; glyco has longer duration of action than atropine. Controversial in large animals, potential for colic in horses.
Drugs that promote bradycardia (4 types) opioids, alpha 2 agonists, barbiturates, gas anesthetics
Drugs that cause excess salivation (2) ketamine, tiletamine
Examples of Alpha 2 agonists (4) xylazine, detomidine, medetomidine, romifidine
Alpha 2 agonists about sedative and analgesic properties useful for chemical restraint especially in horse.
Alpha 2 agonists side effects in horse muscle tremors, partial AV block, bradycardia, resp changes, sweating, penile prolapse, incr intracranial pressure, decreased mucociliary clearance
xylazine about and side effects widely used in cattle (not food producing). side effects: ruminal atony, intestinal stasis, salivation, hypothermia, diarrhea, bloating, ataxia, and regurgitation w/aspiration pneumonia
yohimbine alpha 2 adrenergic receptor antagonist that competitively blocks and antagonizes CNS depression or sedation and the bradycardia and resp depr caused by xylazine
antipamezole hcl reverses "WHAT" in "WHO" reverses effects of medetomidine in dogs
phenobarb major side effect dose dependent resp depression
common side effects of steroids GI bleeding, increased susceptibility to infections or wounds that won't heal, potassium loss causing irregular heartbeats, muscle cramps and weakness, sodium and water retention, muscle weakness from protein breakdown and behavioral changes
furosemide diuretic used to relive edema, a loop diuretic that inhibits primarily reabsorption of Na and Cl in kidney, can cause a wasting of K, NOT effective in altering tubular reabsorption. Used in kidney failure and pulm edema.
mannitol osmotic diuretic, watch out for crystals, often used in hit by car candidates for reperfusion injury, acute renal failure and cerebral edema. Contra: hypovolemic animals
digoxin cardiac glycoside improves inotropic ability (contractility) of the myocardium but also reduces demand of heart for energy and oxygen, dosage is critical as toxic effects occur outside of narrow therapeutic dos
diltiazem antiarrhythmic drug used to treat supraventricular tachyarrhythmias in dogs and cats, tx of hypertrophic cardiomyopahty in cats
quinidine used in horses and large dogs for tx of supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias
enalapril (and benazepril) vasodilatory drug, aka angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. Prevents conversion of antiotensin I to angiotensin II.
cholinomimetic agents aka cholinergic, parasympathomimetic. Drugs that mimic stimulatory effects of Ach. Further divided into muscarinic and nicotinic agents.
Sympathomimetic agents aka adrenergic drugs that mimic effects of norepinephrine
Anticholinergic agents drugs that block Ach effects
Sympatholytic agents aka adrenergic blocking agents that block effects of norepinephrine
norepinephrine predominant... neurotransmitter sympathetic system
acetylcholine predominant... neurotransmitter parasympathetic system
sympathetic stimulation effects dilate pupils. scanty viscous secretion. dilated bronchioles. hr incr, contractile force incr. muscle and heart bv dilated. skin bv constr. decr peristalsis & tone of GI muscle wall. incr sphincter tone. u bladder wall relaxed. u bladder sphincte
parasympathetic stimulation effects pupils constricted. copious secretion. constricted bronchioles. hr slowed and contractile force decr. dilated skin bv. increased peristalsis and tone. u bladder wall contract. u bladder sphinchter relaxed.
alpha adrenergic agents lowering bp and improving blood flow in certain vascular diseases, ex: phenoxybenzamine, prazosin, hydralazine
in sight hounds, avoid barbiturates!
alternative drug combo for sight hounds ketamine + benzodiazepine (diazepam, midazolam, zolazepam) for induction
in collies, avoid ivermectin
LEAN the drugs that can be administered in an er with the intratracheal route lidocaine, epi, atropine and naloxone
glucorticoids in er med dex sp, prednisolone and methylprednisolone, controversial as to usage, may be beneficial in stabilizing cellular membranes and decrease release of a precursor to many inflam mediators. Work vs free radicals created in reperfusion injury
dobutamine synthetic catecholamine, admin to maintain mean arterial bp, increase cardiac output and perfusion, may reduce pulmonary edema
dopamine increase renal perfusion in canine patients at low doses and increase systemic bp at higher doses. Controversial in felines.
sodium bicarb tx of severe acidosis, blood pH must be monitored
lidocaine in er use antiarrhythmic drug tx for v-tach, contraindicated in ventricular escape and isolated premature ventricular complexes
atropine er indications bradycardia, AV block, asystole
dobutamine er indications myocardial failure
dopamine er indications low cardiac output
epinephrine er indications v-fib, asystole, EMD
magnesium chloride er indications v-fib, v-tach
naloxone er indications EMD
atropine as a pre-anesthetic side effects vagal inhibitions and decreased gastric secretion
guaifenesin used... most often in horses and cattle to produce muscle relaxation
corticosteroids in CPCR... induce vasodilatation, aid in regulating fluid and electrolyte homeostasis and stabilize the cellular membranes
Created by: alanagirl