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NASM Basic and AS

NASM CPT4 - Basic and Applied Science

When is the best time for clients to measure their resting heart rate? Upon waking in the morning
Name two common tests for assessing cardiorespiratory efficiency Rockport Walk test and YMCA 3 min step test
What are three methods of assessing body fat percentages? Bio-electric impedence
Skin fold caliper
Underwater weighing
What is the BMI range for a person who has a very high risk of disease? 35-39.9%
What are the two main calf muscles that are responsible for concentricailly accelerating plantar flexion? Soleus, gastrocnemius
Name the muscle that is responsible for concentrically accelerating hip extension and external rotation Gluteus maximus
What do you call information gathered from a client that includes their occupation, lifestyle and background Subjective information
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the feet turn out? Soleus, lateral gasterocnemius and biceps femoris
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the knees move inward? Adductor complex, biceps femoris, tenor fascia latae, vastus latereralis
During an overhead squat assessent, what are the probable overactive muscles when there is an excessive forward lean? Soleus, gastrocnemius, hip flexor complex, abdominal complex
Name the class of medication that decreases heart rate and blood pressure Beta blockers
What is an indicator that a female client's ancle complex will be in a plantar flexed position for extended periods of time based on occupation? Wearing dress shoes/heels
Name 3 postural distortion patterns that might be seen during a static postural assessment Pronation distortion syndrome, Upper crossed syndrome, Lower crossed syndrome
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when the low back arches? Hip flexor complex, erector spinae, latissimus dorsi
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable overactive muscles when a client's shoulders elevate and/or head moves forward? Upper traps, sternocleidomastoid and levator scapulae
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles if a clients feet turn out? Medial gastrocnemius, medial hamstring complex, gracilis, sartorius, popliteus
What are the probable underactive musles when a client's arms fall forward during an overhead squat assessment? Middle lower traps, rhomboids, rotator cuff
What are the probable underactive muscles when a client's knees move inward during an overhead squat assessment? Gluteus medius/maximus, vastus medalis oblique (vmo)
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a lient shows an excessive forward lean? Anterior tibialis, gluteus maximus, erector spinae
During an overhead squat assessment, what are the probable underactive msucles when a client's low back arches? Gluteus maximus, hamstring complex, intrinsic core stabilizers
During a pushing assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client's shoulds elevate? Middle/lower trapezius
During a pushing assessment, what are the probable underactive muscles when a client's head protrudes forward? Deep cervical flexors
After assessing a client's overhead squat, which muscles should you have them foam roll and stretch? Overactive muscles
After assessing a clien'ts overhead squat, which muscles should you have them strengthen? Underactive muscles
Name the assessment that measures lower extremity agility and neuromuscular control Shark Skill Test
Name 2 conditions in which Beta Blockers might be prescribed High blood pressure and arrhythmias
What muscle action develops tension while lengthening and prevents resistance from accelerating in an uncontrolled manner? Eccentric
Name the imaginary bisector that divides the body into right and left halves Sagittal plane
This movement primarily occurs from side to side, as if there were a wall in front of and behind the body Frontal plane movement
Name the energy storage and transfer unit within the cells of the body ATP
What is the starting zone of cardio training when a client scores poor during the YMCA 3 minute step test? Zone 1
What is the starting zone of cardio training when a client scores average on the YMCA step test? Zone 2
What information can be provide to the health and fitness professional by knowing the client's occupation? Common movement patterns
What relevant information can you learn about a client based on their occupation and movement capacity? Extended periods of sitting, repetative movements, dress shoes, mental stress
Which muscles have decrease neural control once a client has had an ankle sprain? Gluteus maximus and gluteus medius
What muscle action deelops when a muscle exerts more force than is placed on it, resulting in the shortening of the muscle? Concentric
This chamber of the heart gathers oxygenated blood coming to the heart from the lungs Left atrium
Give the straight percentage method equation for calculating a client's target heart rate 220-age x desired intesity
Name the muslces involved in respiratory inspiration Diaphragm, external incostals,scalenes, sternocleidomastoid, pectoralis major
What are teh guidelines for taking the radial pulse of a client? Take when client is calm, use gentle touch, take at same time over 3 day period and average results for accurancy
Name the functional unit of the muscle that lies in the space between two z lines. It produces muscular contraction and is formed by repeating sections of actin and myosin. Sarcomere
The science concerned with the internal and external forces acting on the human body and the effects produced by these forces Biomechanics
The heart rate training zone between 65-75% that builds an aerobic base and aids in recovery Zone 1
The heart rate training zone between 76-85% that increases both aerobic and anerobic activity Zone 2
The heart rate training zone between 86-95% that builds high end work capacity Zone 3
Represents the pressure within the arterial system after the heart contracts Systolic blood pressure
Represents the pressure within the arterial systme when the heart is resting and filling with blood Diastolic blooc pressure
The method of mearsuring body fat percentages that conducts an electrical current through the body to measure fat Bio electrical impedence
What are the four skin flold sites tested when using the Durnin-Womersley formula for body fat assessment? Iliac crest, Subscapular, Biceps, Triceps
What is the waist to hip ratio for males and females that puts them at a greater risk for disease? Males - .95 Females - .80
Muscles that assist the prime movers Synergists
Risk for disease increases when an overweight person's BMI level is ____________ Over 25
Sensory receptors responsible for sensing distortion in body tissues Mechanoreceptors
What is the amount of time recovery pulse is taken after completeing the YMCA 3 min step test? Within 5 seconds, for 1 min
What is the level that a client is instructed to squat to when performing the overhead squat assessment Chair height
Receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change Golgi tendon organs
Receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change Muscle spindles
On which clients should you avoid the used of skin fold calipers to measure body fat Obese or very overweight clients
The resting length of a muscle and the tension the muscle can produce at this resting length Length tension relationship
What is the functional unit of the nervous system Neuron
The neuromuscular phenomenon that occurs when inappropiate muscles take over the function of a weak or inhibited prime mover Synergistic dominence
The process in which neural impulses that sense tension are greater than the immpulses that cause uscles to contract, providing an inhibitory effect to the muscle spindles Autogenic inhibition
Compensations observed during the overhead squat assessment from the lateral view Low back arches, excessive forward lean, arms fall forward
Compensations observed during the overhead squat assessment from the anterior view Feet turn out, knees moving in
Name some of the benefits of circumference measurements Inexpensive, easy to record, can be used on obese clients, good for comparisons/progressions, good for assessing fat patterns and distribution
Name the systems of the human movement system (kinetic chain) Nervous system, muscular system, skeletal system
Neame the agonist, synergsist, stabilizer and antagonist muscles activated during a squat exercise Agonist - Gluteus maximus, quads Synergists - Hamstring complex Stabilizer - Tranversus Abdominalis Antagonist - Psoas
The involved structures and mechanisms that the nervous system uses to gather sensory information and integrate it with previous experiences to produce a motor response Motor control
What are some primary causes of muscle imbalances Postural stress, emotional stress, repetitive movement, trauma, poor training technique
Feedback used after the completion of a movment to help inform clients about the outcome of their performance Knowledge of results
The energy pathway used in moderate to high intensity activities that can only be sustained for 30-50 seconds Glycolysis
Repeated practice of motor control processes, which leads to a change in the ability to produce skilled movements Motor learning
What are possible injuries associated with lower crossed syndrome? Hamstring complex strain, anterior knee pain, low back pain
Name movement compensations observed during a pushing assessment Head protruding, low back arches, shoulder elevates
When assessing a client during a single leg squat, from which vantage point should you view the client Anterior
Which muslcle groups are primarily used to perform a shoulder press? Deltoid, trapezius, rotator cuff
The name of the receptors surrounding a joint that respond to pressure, acceleration, and deceleration in the joint Joint receptors
Altered reciprocal inhibition, synergistic dominance, and arthrokinetic dysfunction all lead to this Muscle imbalances
The ability of the neuromuscular system to properly recuit muscles to produce force concentrically, reduce force eccentrically and isometrically stabilize the entire kinetic chain in all planes of motion Neuromuscular efficiency
What are the 3 support mechanisms of blood? Transportation, regulation and protection
The Davies test is contraindicated for which group of people? Individuals who lack shoulder stability
What muscle is responsible for concentricallty accelerating shoulder extension, adduction and internal rotation? Latissimus dorsi
Name possible injuries associated with pronation distortion syndrome Plantar fascitis, shin splints, patellar tendonitis, low back pain
Name the altered joint mechanics associated with lower crossed syndrome Deep cervical flexors, serratus anterior, rhomboids, mid trapezius, lower traps, teres minor, and infraspinatus
What are the altered joint mechanics associated with pronation distortion syndrome? Increased knee adduction, foot rotations, foot pronation and external rotation, decreased ankle dorsiflexion and inversion
Name the lengthened muscles associated with lower crossed syndrome Anterior tibialis, Posterior tibialis, Gluteus maximus, Gluteus medius, transverse abdominalis and internal oblique
Average stroke volueme of an adult 70 ml
Name two adbominal muscle used for trunk rotation Internal and external obliques
Name five performance assessment tests Davies Test
Shark Skill Test
Push-Up Test
Upper Extremity Strength Assessment
Lower Extremity Strength Assessment
What positional guidelines do you give a client who is setting up for an overhead squat assessment? Feet shoulder width apart, toes straight ahead, foot and ankle in a neutral position, arms raised overhead with elbows fully extended
What regressions could you make for clients who are unable to perform a single leg squat assessment? Use support for squatting assistance or perform single leg balance without the squat
A force that produces rotation Torque
Movement of the bones around the joint Rotary motion
Name possible injuries associated with upper crossed syndrome Headaches, bicep tendonitis, rotator cuff impingement and thoracic outlet syndrome
Name the short muscles associated with lower crossed syndrome Gastrocnemius, soleus, hip flexor complex, adductors, latissimus dorsi and erector spinae
Compensations observed during the overhead squat assessment from the lateral view Low back arches, arms fall forward, excessive forward lean
Name the structures that make up the core Lumbar spine, pelvic girdle, abdomen and hip joint
Dysfunction within the connective tissue of the kinetic chain that is treated by the body as an injury, initiating this repair process Cummulative injury cycle
Name four core-strength exercises Ball crunch, Back extensions, Reverse crunch, Cable rotations
The type of flexibility training that applies gentle force to an adhesion, altering the elastic musle fibers from a bundled position to a straighter alignment with the direction of the muscle and or fascia. SMR- self myofascial release
Exercises in the core-stabilization level are identified through these characteristics They involve little motion through the spine and pelvis
What are four common ways a stressor causes breakdown or injury? Stress fractures, muscle strains, joint pain, emotional fatique
Name four core-stabilization exercises Marching, Floor prone cobra, Floor bridge, Prone Iso abs
Law stating that soft tissue models along the lines of stress Davis's law
Referred to as a co-contraction of global muscles, such as the rectus abdominis, external obliques and quadratus lumborum Bracing
It is crititcal that the core training program is designed to ahieve these three functional outcomes in the right order Intervertibal stability, Lumbo-pelvic stability and movement efficiency
What are the proper backside mechanics during sprinting? Ankle plantar flexion, knee extension, hip extension and neutral pelvis
What are the proper frontside mechanics during sprinting? Ankle dorsiflexion, knee flexion, hip flexion, and neutral pelvis
The ability to accelerate, decelerate, stabilize and change direction quickly, while maintaining proper posture Agility
The ability to react and change body position with maximum rate for force production, in all planes of motion and from all body positions, during functional activities Quickness
The ability to move the body in one intended direction as fast as possible Speed
Name four core-power exercises Rotation chest pass, Ball medicine pullover throw, Front medicine ball oblique throw, Soccer throw
The ability of the body to produce high levels of force for prolonged periods of time Muscular endurance
What is a component of core power exercises that make them easy to identify? Explosive movements with medicine balls
Name five balance stabilization exercises Single leg balance, Single leg balance reach, Single leg hip internal and external rotation, Single leg lift and chop, Single leg throw and catch
Name five balance strength exercises Single leg ssquat, Single leg squat touchdown, Single leg romanian deadlift, Step up to balance, Mulitplanar lunge to balance
Name three balance power exercises Mulitplanar hop with stablization, Mulitplanar single leg box hop up with stablilization, Multiplanar single leg box hop down with stabilization
What are four plyometric stabilization exercises Squat jump with stabilization, Box jump up with stabilization, Box jump down stabilization, Multiplanar jup with stabilization
Name four plyometric-strength exercises Squat jump, Tuck jump, Butt kick, Power step up
Name three ploymetric power exercises Ice Skater, Single leg power step up, Proprioceptive plyometrics
Exercises that use quick powerful movements involving an eccentric action immediately followed by an explosive concentric contraction Plyometric training
Body position progressions in balance training Two leg stable, Single leg stable, Two legs unstable, Single leg
Give examples of chest exercises used in the Stablization levele of the OPT model Ball dumbbell chest press, Push up, Ball push up-hands on ball, Standing cable chest press
What are the two techniques used in corrective flexiblity according to the integreted flexiblity continuum? SMR and static stretching
Give examples of totatl body power exercises Two arm push press, Barbell clean, Dumbbell snatch, Squat thrust, Kettlebell hang, Clean and jerk
What is the minimum amount of time static stretches should be held? 30 seconds
Name two different leg stabilization exercises Ball squat and Multiplanar step up to balance
What are three things that a client should have established prior to incorporating a dynamic stretching program? Good tissue extensibility, core stability, and balance capablilities
Name two strength level exercises for the legs Leg press and Barbell squat
Name two power level exercises for the legs Squat jump and Tuck jump
Give three examples of shoulder power exercises Front medicine ball oblique throw, Overhead medicine ball throw, Speed Tubing shoulder press
Give examples of total body strength exercises Lunge to two arm dumbbell press, Squat, curl to two arm press, Step Up to Overhead Press, Romanian deadlift, shrug to calf Raise
Based on the exercise selection continuum what exercises should be selected for the adaptation of stabilization? Total body, Multi-joint or single joint, Controlled, unstable
Give four examples of core stabilization exercises Marching, Floor Bridge, Floor Prone Cobra, Prone Iso-Abs
Give four examples of core strength exercises Ball Crunches, Back Extensions, Reverse Crunches, Cable Rotations
Body position progressions used for balance training Two leg stable Single leg stable Two legs unstable Single leg unstable
Three type of core systems Local stabilization system Global stabilization system Movement system
What is the minimum duration pressure should be sustain on adhesions when performing self myofascial release? 30 seconds
What are the seven methods for prescribing exercise intensity? Peak VO2, VO2 reserve, Peak metabolic equivalant, Peak maximal heart rate, Heart rate reserve, Rating of percieved extertion, Talk test
The cummulative sensory input to the central nevous system from al mechanoreceptors that sense position and limb movements Proprioception
What muscle action develops tension while lengthening and prevents resistance from accelerating in an uncontrolled manner? Eccentric
Created by: txdc48