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AFAA GROUP EX

GROUP EX INSTRUCTOR

QuestionAnswer
LIST 8 HEALTH BENEFITS ASSOCIATED WITH REGULAR PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LOWER RISK OF EARLY DEATH LOWER RISK OF STROKE LOWER RISK OF HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE LOWER RISK OF TYPE 2 DIABETES LOWER RISK OF COLON CANCER LOWER RISK OF BREAST CANCER LOWER RISK OF WEIGHT GAIN REDUCED DEPRESSION
HOW CAN INTERVAL TRAINING IMPROVE AEROBIC PERFORMANCE USED TO MAXIMIZE AEROBIC POWER, AT HIGHER INTENSITY TO INCREASE AEROBIC ENDURANCE AND ANAEROBIC POWER
LIST 3 PHYSIOLOGICAL ADAPTATIONS THAT OCCUR TO IMPROVE EXERCISE PERFORMANCE INCREASED MAXIMAL BLOOD FLOW INCREASED OXYGEN DELIVERY & CARBON DIOXIDE REMOVAL INCREASED MAXIMAL OXYGEN UPTAKE AND AEROBIC POWER
AEROBIC BREAKDOWN FUEL SOURCE DURATION EPOC WORK END PRODUCTS OXYGEN USAGE AEROBIC COMPLETE BREAKDOWN CARBOHYDRATES, FAT, PROTEINS LONG DURATION SMALLER EPOC SUB MAXIMAL WORK (MODERATE INTENSITY) CO2 AND H@O USES OXYGEN IN CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN
ANAEROBIC BREAKDOWN FUEL SOURCE DURATION EPOC WORK END PRODUCTS OXYGEN USAGE ANAEROBIC PARTIAL BREAKDOWN OF GLUCOSE ONLY CARBOHYDRATES SHORT DURATION GREATER EPOC MAXIMAL OUTPUT (HIGH-INTENSITY) LACTIC ACID DOES NOT NEED O2 IN CHEMICAL BREAKDOWN
LIST 3 MUSCLE CONTRACTIONS THAT ARE USED IN A GROUP SETTING CONCENTRIC ECCENTRIC ISOMETRIC
MUSCULOSKELETAL BENEFITS OF: A. WEIGHT-BEARING ACTIVITIES B. INCREASED MUSCULAR STRENGTH C. INCREASED MUSCULAR FLEXIBILITY A. INCREASED BONE DENSITY B. IMPROVED PHYSICAL APPEARANCE AND INCREASED PHYSICAL PERFORMANCE C. IMPROVED TISSUE ELASTICITY AND HELP FACILITATE MOVEMENTS
LIST 3 POSTURAL DEVIATIONS OF THE BACK 1. KYPHOSIS (HUMP) 2. SCOLIOSIS (TWISTED) 3. LORDOSIS (BENT BACKWARD)
EXPLAIN WHY BALLISTIC MOVEMENTS CAN BE DANGEROUS CAUSES THE MUSCLE SPINDLES TO SENSE QUICK CHANGES IN MUSCLE LENGTH AND CAUSE MUSCULAR CONTRACTION. MAY CAUSE EXCESSIVE TENSION
LIST 6 CLASSES OF NUTRIENTS WATER CARBOHYDRATES PROTEIN FATS MINERALS VITAMINS
LIST THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF CARBOHYDRATES AND GIVE EXAMPLES OF EACH SIMPLE SUGARS - SUCROSE, FRUCTOSE, LACTOSE COMPLEX CARBOHYDRATES - GLUCOSE MOLECULES LINKED TOGETHER, POLYSACHARIDES (GRAINS, LEGUMES, VEGETABLES)
DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN FAT-SOLUBLE (FS) AND WATER-SOLUBLE (WS) VITAMINS FS CAN BE STORED IN LIVER WHILE WS CANNOT BE STORED
LIST A MINIMUM OF 8 DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS OUTLINED BY THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (USDHHS) AND U.S. DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (USDA) VARIETY OF NUTRIENT DENSE FOOD/BEVS AVOID WEIGHT GAIN BY SMALL DECREASES IN CALS DAILY ACTIVITY VARIETY OF FRUITS EAT 3+ OF FAT-FREE OR LOW FAT MILK PRODUCTS/DAY ACHIEVE PHYSICAL FITNESS EAT 3+ OZ WHOLE GRAINS/DAY EAT <10% CAL FROM SAT FATTY ACIDS
LIST 4 THINGS THAT MAY CONTRIBUTE TO HEAT INJURIES, CARDIOVASCULAR CONDITIONS, OR EXERCISE-INDUCED CONDITIONS AS THEY RELATED TO PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DEHYDRATION NO WARM-UP INAPPROPRIATE CLOTHING SAUNAS/HOT TUB AFTER EXERCISE FAMILY HISTORY SMOKING OBESITY NO SUNSCREEN
WILL ONE FITT VARIABLE AFFECT ANOTHER? HOW? YES. A SIGNIFICANT INCREASE IN INTENSITY WILL LIKELY RESULT IN DECREASED DURATION OF THAT EXERCISE SESSION
LIST 3 WAYS TO PREVENT INJURY TO VOCAL NODULES USE MICROPHONE NON-VERBAL CUEING (GESTURES) RELAXATION (KEEP HEAD, NECK, AND JAW TENSION FREE) PITCH (SPEAK WITHOUT EFFORT) POSTURE (SPEAK WHILE IN POSITION) PROJECTIONS (SPEAK OUT, NOT UP OR DOWN) ENVIRONMENT (MUSIC AT A MODERATE VOLUME)
LIST 3 WAYS TO PREVENT SHINSPLINTS PROPER FOOTWEAR QUALITY FLOORING SAFE TECHNIQUE
WHAT ARE THE FITT PRINCIPLE TRAINING VARIABLES FREQUENCY (NUMBER OF EXERCISE SESSIONS PER WEEK) INTENSITY (DIFFICULTY OF EXERCISE) TIME TYPE (MODE OF ACTIVITY PERFORMED)
DESCRIBE CHOOSEMYPLATE.ORG AND HOW PARTICIPANTS MAY BENEFIT FROM THIS OFFERS PERSONALIZED EATING PLANS AND INTERACTIVE TOOLS TO HELP PLAN/ACCESS FOOD CHOICES BASED ON DIETARY GUIDELINES FOR AMERICANS. GIVES A BETTER UNDERSTANDING OF WHAT TO EAT AND HOW MUCH EXERCISE NEEDED TO MAINTAIN A HEALTHY LIFESTYLE.
List the part of the body in which each of the following chronic injuries occurs most often: A. Plantar Fasciitis B. Chronodromalcia Patella C. Achilles Tendonitis A. Inflammation of the fascia/connective tissue in Metatarsals B. Overuse injury affecting articular cartilage of posterior surface. C. Inflammation of connective tissue that joins muscle to bone. Achilles Tendon.
Discuss what the role and responsibilities of a fitness professional are when it comes to the sale and distribution of nutritional supplements. 1. Only sell if proof of benefits. 2. DON'T sell if deemed unsafe by FDA or in violation of health-care provider licensing 3. Provide info and warnings 5. Correct labeling w/ dosage. 6. Approved by Dr 7. Record sales & use waivers (if needed)
List the health related components of physical fitness Cardiorespiratory Fitness Muscular Strength and Endurance Flexibility Body Composition
List the skill-related components of physical fitness Agility Balance Coordination Power Reaction Time Speed
Outline the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Avoid inactivity 60min 3-5 times a week moderate-intensity Perform moderate to high-intensity muscle strengthening activities involving all major muscle groups 2 or more days a week
Which other organization's training recommendations does AFAA support? ACSM American College of Sports Medicine
What does BMI stand for and what measurements constitutes and individual to be defined as obese? BMI (Body Mass Index) Overweight >25 Obese >30
Instructors should evaluate an exercise from which two view points? Effectiveness (benefits) and Potential Risk (Injury quotient)
AFAA 5 Questions 1. What is the purpose of the exercise? 2. Are you doing that effectively? 3. Does this exercise create any safety concerns? 4. Can you maintain proper alignment and form the whole time? 5. For whom is the exercise appropriate or inappropriate?
List 14 exercise that AFAA does NOT recommend for group exercise due to high-risk potential? Part 1 1-6 Part 1 1. Sustained unsupported forward spinal flexion 2. Sustained unsupported lateral spinal flexion 3. Repetitive or weighted deep knee bends 4. Supine double straight leg lifts w/o spinal stabilization 5. Windmills 6. Hurdler's Stretch
List 14 exercise that AFAA does NOT recommend for group exercise due to high-risk potential? Part 2 7-12 Part 2 7. Bouncy (ballistic) movements 8. Rapid head circle 9. Full Plough 10. Full Cobra 11. Painful, forced splits 12. Prone combo double leg/double arm lift 13. Weight-bearing pivots or harsh surface 14. Plyometric moves from elevated surface
List 10 basic postures used in group exercise classes and one alignment cue for each. Part 5 1-6 1. Standing-Feet shoulder width apart 2. Squat-Knees do not extend past toes 3. Bent Over- Flex at the hips 4. Seated-Spine in neutral position 5. Supine-Engage ab muscles, pelvis is neutral 6. Prone-Engage ab muscles, pelvis is neutral
List 10 basic postures used in group exercise classes and one alignment cue for each. Part 5 7-10 7. Side-Lying-Stack hips and shoulders with square alignment 8. Kneeling-Shoulders down, neck in neutral alignment 9. Hand & Knee-Keep shoulders and hips squared 10. Moving-Posture and alignment, control ROM
List several special considerations for a warm-up Intensity and Impact Speed and Control Range of Motion Sequence Spinal Issues
List several special considerations for cardiorespiratory training Monitoring Intensity Cross-Training Intensity Issues Music Speed Range of Motion Repetitive Stress Issues Cardiorespiratory Cool-Down
List several special considerations for Muscular Strength and Endurance Training Muscle Balance Intensity Range of Motion Speed and Control Torso Stabilization Resistance Equipment Techniques In the Water
List several special considerations for Flexibility training Intensity Speed & Control Range of Motion Body Temperature
List several special considerations for a Final Class Segment Heart Rate Monitoring Saunas and Hot tub Method Selection
Calculate : Age-predicted maximal Heart Rate (MHR or HRmax) Age 21 Historical Gellish Historical 199bpm (220-21) Gellish 192bpm (206.9-(0.67+21))
Calculate : Target Heart Rate Range (THRR) using HRmax Age 21 Historical Gellish Historic: HR64% = 64% x 199 = 127bpm HR 94% = 94% x 199 = 187bpm Gellish: HR64% = 64% x 192 = 122bpm HR94% = 94% x 192 = 180bpm
The preferred anatomical site for pulse checking is ___________, while the secondary site is _________. Radial artery, Jugular
The AFAA recommended counting time for heart rate is ___ seconds 10
Once cued to begin, start counting beats with the number ___ 1
How does abruptly stopping cardiorespiratory exercise affect exercise response? Can cause blood pooling
How does working above target heart rate range (THRR) affect exercise response? Working anaerobically (without oxygen) and inefficiently, larger EPOC
How does stimulants (caffeine, cigarette, smoking, etc.) affect exercise May raise resting heart rate (RHR)
How does cardiac medications (beta-blockers, etc.) affect exercise Blunt the increase in heart rate and blood pressure, protecting the participant from risk for exercise-induced ischemia.
How does pressor response (can result from many arm movements above the head) affect exercise The heart rate and blood pressure are elevated disproportionately to the oxygen cost of the activity
List 5 ways choreography can increase the intensity of a cardio (aerobic) workout 1. Higher Impact moves 2. Faster rhythms 3. Change directions and planes 4. Asymmetry 5. Add upper body movement
How would you define the word rhythm? Measured motion with regular recurrence of elements or features such as the beat of the music
Explain what is meant by a musical phrase Typically there are 32 beats of music, broken down into 8 sets of 4 beats
What are the legal considerations when purchasing or creating music for group exercise Must get approval from a performing rights company
List 4 NIA (non-impact aerobics) exercises Biking/Spinning Swimming Laps Squats/Lunges Seated/ Chair Aerobics
List 4 LIA (low-impact aerobics) exercises March Step Touch Squat/Plié Step Touch while raising on toes
List 4 MIA (moderate-impact aerobics) exercises Skip/Twist Plié/Relevé (up on toes) Knee lifts with heel lifts Any move between LIA and HIA
List 4 HIA (high-impact aerobics) exercises Jog Jump/Hop Splits/Scissors Jack
To lessen injury risk and maintain motivation in Type A class participants, list 3 types of workouts that provide different mechanical stresses to the body while allowing high-intensity options for advanced training Kickboxing Cycling Step Training
List 4 motivational techniques to sustain Type B class participants for lifelong exercise adherence Feedback Support Recognition Encouragement
List a minimum of 8 action steps an instructor should take to enhance exercise adherence for a novice class participant 1. Warm Welcome 2. Take Interest 3. Appropriate & Specific Guidance 4. Clear Expectations 5. Observe & assist 6. Use terminology 7. Everyone is different 8. De-emphasize transition 9. Corrections 10. Think Positive 11. Perform all Modifications
List a minimum of 4 muscles that tend to be weaker than their opposing group External Shoulder Rear Deltoid Abdominals Spinal Erectors Mid Trapezius & Rhomboids Lower Trapezius Vastus Medialis (inner quad) Tibialis Anterior
List a minimum of 4 muscles that tend to be too tight Internal Shoulder Front Deltoid Pectorals Spinal Erectors Upper Trapezius Iliopsoas Hamstrings Gastrocnemius
Part 1 List 7 action steps for designing a resistance tubing class. Part 1 1. Check for holes or tears prior 2. Avoid pulling the tubing towards face 3. Select appropriate resistance to maintain proper form & alignment 4. Avoid gripping the handles too tightly as to not elevate blood pressure
Part 2 List 7 action steps for designing a resistance tubing class. Part 2 5. Maintain wrist alignment so the hand is in line with the forearm 6. Maintain continous tension in the tubing so movement can be controlled 7. Maintain a smooth and controlled pace on the lifting and lowering phase
List a minimum of 3 strength training sequences appropriate within the group exercise setting 1. Arm and Leg combination (bicep curl with lunge) 2. Leg combinations (front lunge followed by side squat) 3. Arm combinations (bicep curl to overhead press)
List 7 principles of Mat Science 1. Balance 2. Extension 3. Alignment 4. Range of Motion 5. Progression 6. Flow 7. Breath
List a minimum of 4 class format guidelines 1. Begin with warm-up and breathing 2. Progressive exercise that builds heat 3. Select different objectives 4. Move fluidly & mindfully 5.Modify movements when needed 6. Always finish with cool-down, relax and restore
What are the guidelines for various class participant step levels? Level 1: 4in (does not exercise regularly) Level 2: 4-6in (regular exerciser new to step) Level 3: 4-8in (regular stepper) Level 4: 4-10in (highly skilled and regular stepper)
List the appropriate bpm for: a. Warm-Up b. Cardiorespiratory Training c. Muscular Strength and Endurance Training 120-134bpm 118-124bpm 128-135bpm for advanced 120-130bpm
List a minimum of 3 body alignment techniques 1. Shoulders back and relaxed 2. Chest lifted, body erect 3. Abs contracted to support torso 4. Neutral Spine 5. Knees relaxed, not locked 6. Avoid Twisting or Hyperextension of Joints
List a minimum of 3 stepping techniques 1. Use full body lean, do not bend at waist 2. Knee flexion does not exceed 90 degrees 3. Watch platform periodically 4. Allow whole foot to contact floor 5. Don't turn away from step 6. Step to center staying close 7. Use proper lifting techniques
How can one prevent injury to knee while stepping? Only pivot when the leg is non-weight-bearing or "unloaded" and knee range of motion should not exceed 90 degrees.
List 6 exercise guidelines for participants with heart disease 1. Screened for heart disease risk factors prior. 2. Follow guidelines from Physician 3. Comply with THRR & RPE guidelines 4. Review meds & their effects on exercise 5. Do not exceed level of expertise 6. Intensity start low & gradually increase
List 4 exercise guidelines for participants with arthritis 1. Low-impact cardio, frequent 2. Stretch daily 3. Isometric exercises preferred 4. Extended warm-up & cool-down 5. Decrease intensity & duration during severe bouts of pain
List 8 exercise guidelines for participants with hypertension 1. Focus on cardio to reduce high BP 2. Train frequently 3. Avoid high-intensity/isometric activities 4. Avoid Valsalva Maneuver 5. Resistance training: reps high, weights low 6.Relaxation & stress management 7. Utilize RPE 8. Keep head above feet
List at least 4 precautions that should be taken for diabetic participants who are attending a group exercise class 1. Blood glucose should be monitored frequently 2. Inject insulin into non-active muscles 3. Avoid exercise during peak insulin activity 4. Follow physicians recommendations 5. Exercise at same time of day 6. Increase carb intake 7. Emergency Number
No one rule necessarily applies to all large-sized adults in terms of exercise precautions because _____________ It is possible to be fat and fit
What is the preferred method of monitoring exercise intensity in the older adult population and what is the appropriate range? Cardio at a low-moderate pace is recommended with RPE of 5-6 with noticeable increase in the heart rate
What method of resistance training would be appropriate for older adults with arthritis and osteoporosis? Resistance training utilizing concentric and eccentric exercises. Avoid isometric (may have a tendency to elevate blood pressure)
List the 2 methods of stretching that are recommended for older adults Static and Dynamic
List at least 4 program design guidelines for the older adult 1. Be alert to overexertion 2. Monitor intensity ever 4-5min 3. Avoid forward spinal flexion 4. Dizziness may occur is eyes are closed & head lower than heart 5. Slow controlled movements 6. Maintain comfortable pace.
List at least 3 exercise considerations during pregnancy 1. Cardiovascular changes (increased blood volume, possible increased HR and cardiac output) 2. Exercise at moderate intensity 3. Hormonal & Anatomical Changes (increased risk for potential injury)
List 5 things a fitness professional should consider prior to working with pregnant women. 1. Refer to a physician if any adverse reactions to exercise 2. The goal is renewed energy 3. Its only 9 months 4. Watch for warning signs of overexertion 5. Monitor the client and provide modifications
List at least 3 modalities that pregnant women can perform along with any risks and modifications that should be taken 1.Aqua-transition to gravity slowly and wear water shoes to avoid slipping 2. Dance-modify tempo, choreography, change of direction and eliminate jumping 3. Indoor Cycling-move handlebars up, lower intensity and wear support belt
List a minimum of 4 exercise recommendations outlined by the USDHHS and ACSM for Youth Fitness 1. 1hr of physical activity 3-4 days weekly 2. Obese, gradually progress frequency & duration 3. Participate in sustained activities that use large muscle groups (swimming) 4. Participate in recreational sports (basketball) 5. RPE is preferred.
List a minimum of 3 general guidelines to resistance training in children and adolescents 1. Resistance training, slow and controlled 2. Free Weight training with correct form 10yrs+ 3. Weight training on suitable machines if developmentally able. 10yrs+ 4. Isometric Training with proper breathing techniques10yrs+
List a minimum of 3 special considerations regarding resistance training in children and adolescents 1. Appropriate age, size, strength will determine equipment 2. Increase motor skills & fitness w/ comprehensive training 3. Only with proper form may weight be increased (8 reps) 4. Focus on participation & proper technique vs. amount of resistance
Professional responsibilities may include what 7 items 1. Personal Liability Coverage 2. Facility Pre-Exercise Participation Screening 3. Training and Certification 4. CPR/AED and First Aid Training 5. Medical Clearance and Pre-Exercise Testing 6. Environmental Monitoring 7. Emergency Response Plan
List 10 exercise danger signs (participants should exercise and instructor should assess the need for emergency response procedures 1. Nausea/Vomiting 2. Dizziness/Unusual Fatigue 3. Tightness/Pain in chest 4. Loss of muscle control 5. Severe breathlessness 6. Allergic reaction 7. Acute Illness 8. Mental Confusion 9. Cyanosis 10. Acute musculoskeletal Injury
List a minimum of 6 symptoms of overtraining 1. Fatigue 2. Anemia, 3. Amenorrhea 4. Overuse or stress related injuries 5. Increases resting HR 6. Slower Recovery of HR 7. Constant Muscle/Joint soreness leaning toward pain 8. Decrease in strength performance
List 6 AFAA recommendations to avoid overtraining 1. Vary class type/intensity 2. Limit number of high intensity classes 3. Perform warm-up and cool-down 4. Limit amount of active demonstration 5. Decrease schedule when medical or burnout occurs 6. Nutritious Diet
List 5 signs or participant complaints that would require exercise modification or cessation of exercise until signs disappear (not emergency) 1. Labored breathing 2. Excessive heart rate elevation 3. Evidence of strain/holding breath or unusual redness 4. Musculoskeletal pain 5. Lack of proper control
What are the blood pressure norms for a healthy person? What blood pressure is considered high Resting BP for a healthy person averages about 120/80 High BP is considered 140/90+
What should an instructor know about the effects of drugs and/or medications on exercise response? Certain prescriptions/non-prescribed medications may elicit side effects during exercise
According to AFAA, a group exercise instructor should generally teach at which level? Intermediate - with explanation and demonstration of modifications
List the 2 energy pathways Anaerobic Aerobic
Describe the appropriate exercise attire that AFAA recommends Fabrics that breathe Comfortable clothing that allows free movement Shoes with proper support and cushioning
In terms of hydrations and rehydration, AFAA recommends what? Participants should monitor hydration levels and consume 8-12oz of fluid before exercise. Hydrate before, during, and after exercise.
List 3 ways to prevent lower back pain 1. Proper Position 2. Exercise Selection 3. Attention to knees and spine
What are the medical clearance recommendations for Low-Risk participants Most instances do not require clearance. -Men & Women without symptoms and have less than 1 Cardiovascular disease risk factor
What are the medical clearance recommendations for Moderate-Risk participants Medical exam or clearance before exercise -Men and women, Less than 2 atherosclerotic cardio disease, risk factors without symptoms
What are the medical clearance recommendations for High-Risk participants Medical exam, medical clearance, and exercise testing before moderate to vigorous exercise -Men and women, any age, with 1 or more major cardio/pulmonary/ metabolic diseases
Created by: NVR15