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most common symptoms of an asthma attack shortness of breath and coughing
code of ethics set of guidelines established by professional organizations to direct the conduct and actions related to common business practices within a given profession
precontemplation individual is not thinking about adopting an exercise program within the next 6 months "I can't" or "I won't"
contemplation intentions of becoming more physically active within the next 6 months "i may"
preparation intentions to become physically active or start exercising in the next month - join a health club "I will"
action performing regular physical activity at least 150 minutes per week "I am"
maintenance sustained regular physical activity for 6 consecutive months "i still am"
medial closer to the midline of the body
laterial away from the midline of the body
superior close to the head (away from the feet)
inferior away from the head (closer to the feet)
proximal closer to the attahced end of the limb or center of the body
distal away from the center of the body
anterior on/toward the front of the body
posterial ontoward the back of the body
sagittal plane divides the body into right and left sides
frontal plan divides the body into (anterior)front and (posterier) back
transverse plan seperates the body into upper and lower segments also called horizontal plan
human body has how many bones 206
vertebral column/spinal column 33 bones cervical,thoracic, lumbar, sacrum, coccyx
cardiac muscle tissue smooth muscle, involuntary, fatigue resistant
smooth muscle tissue lines internal organs, involuntary
skeletal muscle tissue most abundant type and voluntary
isometric action muscle produces force but there is no resulting movement and no change in muscle length
isotonic muscle shortens and lengthens as force is generated against an external load
concentric phase shortening phase of an isotonic muscle action - exteranal load is lifted
eccentric phase lengthening phase -load is lowered
what anatomical structure is located distal to the elbow joint metacarples
acial skeleton consists of: skull, spine, strernum and ribs
major muscle located on the posterior aspect of the tibia is called gastrocnemius
agonist primary movers
synergist other muscles that assist the agonist
antagonist muscles that work in direct opposition to the agonist
diathrodial joint joint between the glenoid fosssa of the scapula and teh humerus.
Sliding Filament Theory during muscle contract - an action potential is delivered by the central nervous system to the muscle
flexion movement that decreases the relative joint angle/bring 2 body parts closer together
abduction movement away from the midline
adduction movement towards the midline
shoulder extension occurs during the concentric phase of a dumbbell chesk press
latissimus dorsi primary muscle during shoulder adduction
hip flex joint action created by contraction of the illoposoas muscle group
artery blood vessle that carries oxygenated blood away from the heart
aorta largest artery - transports bloood fromleft ventricle
type 1 slow twich muscle fibers slow oxidavite muscle fibers - slower speed of contraction/high resistance to fatigue/produce energy thru aerobic metabolism
type 11a fast twitch muscle fibers fast speed contraction/moderate resistance to fatigue/produced thru aerobic & anerobic metabolism
type 11b or 11x fast twich muscle fiblers fast speed contraction/high force production/ low resistance to fatigue/produce energy thru anaerobic metabolism/ greatest potential for hypertrophy
twitch single ectrical impulse causing excitation of the muscle fiber followed by complete relaxation.
long chains of glucose are stored as glycogen in skeletal muscle & liver
phosphagen system responsible for the energy supplied during power and speed activities
anaerobic glycolysis "absence of oxygen" high intensity, short-duration activities (2-3 minutes) and moderate intensity resistance training.
aerobic glycolysis low to moderate intensity/ endurance
increase stroke volume most significant impact on increased maximal oxygen consuption with regular endurance exercise training.
carbohydrates perfered source of energy for the body 1 gr = 4 calories
RDA - recommended dietary allowance established nutrient level, based on scientific evidence to meet the requirements of nearly all healthy individuals
macromineral greater than 20 milligrams - calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium.
trace minerals microminerals copper, iron, iodine, zinc or other
hyponatremia (drink too much water )dangerous condition in which the blood's water-to-sodium ration is severely elevated causing a decrease in plasma sodium concentration
24 oz drink this amount for every pound lost durig sweat after exercise.
1, 500 recommended daily sodium intake for people over 51 years old
10% daily calories consume % daily calories from saturated fats by replacing them with mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acidis
Percent (%) Daily Values are based on ##### calorie diet 2,000
AI for dietary fiber for man and woman 25 grams = woman 38 grams = man
total daily energy expenditure # of calories expended throughout the course of a day
National Weight Control Registry (NWCR) perform regular moderate-intensity physical activity often > 300 minutes per week. less than 30% calories from fat eat 5 meals/snacks per day monitor body weight 1x per week less than 10 hours per week tv watching
informed consent utilized to communicate the known risks and dangers associated with exercise participation
hypertension systolic > 140 diastolic > 90
korotoff sound first sound beat = systolic last sound = diastolic
BMI body mass index - doesnot consider the relative proportions of fat and lean tissue.
systolic blood pressure amount of pressure exerted against the arterial wall during left ventricular contraction
kyphosis "humpback" rounding of thoratic spine
Lordosis arching of the lumbar spine
reciprocal inhibition muscles that are shortened are over-stimulated by the nerous system and become dominate, muscles taht are lengthened become passive or weak
pectoriallis major muscle that is typically tight and overactive with upper cross syndrome
if client has lower cross syndrome what is the most appropriate exercise hamstring stretches and core strengthening
flat back flattinging of the lumbar spine and a posterior pelvic tilt
bilateral tightness in hamstring muscle group contributes to... posterior pelivic tilt
MET (metabolic equivalent) unit used to define the absolute energy expenditure of a specific activity
how much activity should person do for sustantial health benefits? 150 minutes of moderate intensity - aerobic activity in 10 minute episodes
FITT cardiorespiratory exercise guidelines frequency = 3-5 days per week intensity = moderate to vigorous time = 30-60 min per day type = aerobic nature
Karvonen Formula 220 - age (HR max) (HR max) - resting heart rate = (HRR) HRR x intensity % + resting heart rate = Target Heart Rate
Resistance Training 2-3 days per week 8-12 reps => 48 hrs between sessions for single muscle groups
breathing for resistance training exhale on concentric phase inhale on eccentric phase
golgi tendon organ sensory receptor located within the musculotendinous unit that is sensitive to tension and rate of tension change
how long should you hold static stretches for 10-30 seconds
what is a benefit from regular stretching reduced joint stress and muschle hypertonicity
what type of stretching reduces exercise related injury? Dynamic stretching
three types of learners visual, auditory and kinesthetic
Linear Progression one move followed by another (movements do not repeat) a + b + c + d + e + f
Drill a Skill Teaching new choreography AAAAAAA+BBBBBBBBB+CCCCCCC + DDDDDDDD
Pyramid/Movement Reduction ideal for new instructors and new students AAAA+BBBB+CCCC+DDDD AA+BB+CC+DD ABCD
Add On ideal for new patterns A+B AB+C ABC+D = ABCD
Small segments/blocks layering of more complex movements - designed choreo. (Hi/Lo) ABCD+EFGH+IJKL+MNOP
Half Time utilzed when performing difficult and complex patterns of movement
Free Style On the spot for veteran instructors
logical basic step/movement progression basic moves add arms add direction change add variation
PRICE acronym Protection Rest ICE COMPRESSION Elevate
What is the perfered source of energy during exercise Carbohydrates
What exercise is contraindicated in a group exercise class Hurdler's Stretch
what cue is most effective for complex choreography Visual
Physical Activity Readiness (PAR-Q) screening tool to identify who should consult with their physician prior to participating in an exercise program
first strong beat of musical phrase is the downbeat
Created by: jladf