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ACSM CPT Test

Flash cards for the ACSM CPT Test

QuestionAnswer
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 1 Screen and interview potential clients to determine their readiness for exercise and physical activity. This may involve communicating with the clients' health care team (especially for clients with special needs).
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 2 Perform fitness tests or assessments (as appropriate) on clients to determine their current level of fitness.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 3 Help clients set realistic goals, modify goals as needed, and provide motiviation for adherence to the program.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 4 Develop exercise regimens and programs(often referred to as an "exercise prescription") for clients to follow and modify programs as necessary, based on progression and goals.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 5 Demonstrate and instruct specific techniques to clients for the safe and effective performance of various exercise movements.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 6 Provide clients with safe and effective exercise techniques or training programs as well as educate them about exercises that may be contraindicated.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 7 Supervise or "spot" clients when they are performing exercise movements.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 8 Maintain records of clients' progress or lack thereof with respect to the exercise prescription.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 9 Be a knowledgeable resource to accurately answer clients' health and fitness questions.
Personal Trainer's Scope of Practice 10 Educate clients about health and fitness and encourage them to become independent exercisers.
How much moderate intensity exercise does ASCM recommend for adults 18-64 yrs old per week? 2 1/2 hours
How much vigorous intensity exercise does ASCM recommend for adults 18-64 yrs old per week? 1 1/4 hours
Hour much exercise should children and adolescents get per day? 1 hour
What is ATP Adenosine Triphosphate
What is the role of stored ATP? The amount of ATP directly available in the muscle at any time is small, so it must be re-synthesized continuously if exercise lasts for more then a few seconds.
What are 3 different ways that the body can manufacture ATP? Creatine Phosphate, anareobic glycolysis, and aerobic oxidation of nutrients to carbon dioxide and water.
What is ADP Adenosine Diphosphate
CVD Risk Factor: Age Men > 45yr Women >55
CVD Risk Factor: Family History Myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or sudden death before 55 yr in father or other male first-degree relative or before 65 yr in mother or other female first-degree relative.
CVD Risk Factor: Cigarette smoking Current cigarette smoker or those who quit within the previous 6 months or exposure to environmental tobacco smoke.
CVD Risk Factor: Sedentary lifestyle Not participating in at least 30 min of moderate intensity physical activity (40%<60% VO2R) on at least 3d of the week for at least 3 months.
CVD Risk Factor: Obesity Body mass index >30 kg x m-2 or waist girth >102 cm (40 in) for men and >88 cm (35 in) for women
CVD Risk Factor: Hypertension Systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and/or diastolic >90 Hg, confirmed by measurements on at least two separate occasions, or on antihypertensive medications.
CVD Risk Factor: Dyslipidemia Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol >130mg x dL-1 (3.37 mmol x L-1) or high-density lipoprotein(b) cholesterol <40mg x dL-1 (1.04 mmol x L-1) or on lipid lowering medication. If total serum cholesterol is all that is available, use >200mg dL-1.
CVD Risk Factor: Prediabetes Impaired fasting glucose = fasting plasma glucose >100 mg x dL-1 (5.55 mmol x L-1) and <125 mg x dL-1) or impaired glucose tolerance = 2 h values in oral glucose tolerance test >140 mg x dL-1 (7.77 mmol x L-1) and <199 mg x dL-1 (11.04 mmol x L-1) taken 2
Negative CVD Risk Factor: High density lipoprotein cholesterol >60mg x dL-1 (1.55 mmolx L-1)
Ipsilateral On the same side
Valgus Distal segment of joint deviates laterally
Varus Distal segment of joint deviates medially
Flexion Movement resulting in a decrease of the joint angle, usually moving anteriorly in the sagittal plane
Extension movement resulting in an increase of the joint angle, usually moving posteriorly in the sagittal plane
Abduction Movement away from the midline of the body, usually in the frontal plane
Adduction Movement toward the midline of the body, usually in the frontal plane
Horizontal abduction Movement away from the midline of the body in the transverse plane, usually used to describe horizontal humerus movement when the shoulder is flexed at 90 degrees
Horizontal Adduction Movement toward the midline of the body in the transverse plane, usually used to describe horizontal humerus movement when the shoulder is flexed at 90 degrees
Internal (medial) rotation Rotation in the transverse plane toward the midline of the body
External (lateral) rotation Rotation in the transverse plane away from the midline of the body
Lateral flexion (right or left) Movement away from the midline of the body on the frontal plane, usually used to describe neck or trunk movement
Rotation (right of left) Right or left rotation in the transverse plane, usually used to describe neck and trunk movement.
Elevation Movement of the scapular superiorly in the frontal plane.
What describes the systemic approach to learning anatomy? Anatomy learned according to organ systems
Which of the following organ systems are studied biomechanically as a health and fitness professional? Skeletal, muscular, cardiovascular, and respiratory.
What is the field of study focusing on the principles of physics in relation to energy and force as applicable to the human body's movements? Biomechanics
What is another term for the body orientation known ans inferior? Caudal
What is a more commonly used term for cranial orientation? Superior
When discussing the segments of the body and their associated planes, where does the axis lie within that plane? Perpendicular to the plane
What are the three cardinal planes of the body? Sagittal, frontal, transverse
Which plane is known to divide the body into superior/inferior segments? Transverse
To which plane does the mediolateral axis lie perpendicular? Sagittal
Which type of movement is a combination of flexion, extension, abduction and adduction? Circumduction
Flexion is a type of movement that performs what action? Decreases the angle of the joint
In what plane does the movement of flexion occur? In the sagittal plane, around the mediolateral axis
In what plane and axis does the movement of extension occur? Sagittal plane, mediolateral axis.
Which type of motion increased the angle of the moving joint? Extension
What describes the movement type called adduction? Movement towards the midline of the body in the frontal plane.
Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest , neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may result from ischemia. Features favoring an ischemic origin: Character: Constricting, squeezing, burning, "heaviness" or "heavy feeling"
Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest , neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may result from ischemia. Features favoring an ischemic origin: Location: Substernal, across midthorax, anteriorly;in one or both arms, shoulders; in neck,cheeks, teeth; forearms, fingers in interscapular region.
Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest , neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may result from ischemia. Features favoring an ischemic origin: Provoking factors: Exercise or exertion, excitement, other forms of stress, cold weather, occurrence after meals.
Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest , neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may result from ischemia. Freatures against an ischemic origin: Character: Dull ache;"knifelike," sharp, stabbing; "jabrs" aggravated by respiration.
Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest , neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may result from ischemia. Features against an ischemic origin: Location: In left submammary area; in left hemithorax
Pain, discomfort (or other anginal equivalent) in the chest , neck, jaw, arms, or other areas that may result from ischemia. Features against an ischemic origin: Provoking factors: After completion of exercise, provoked by a specific body motion.
Dyspnea Abnormally uncomfortable awareness of breathing
Shortness of breath at rest or with mild exertion/dyspnea Dyspnea should be regarded as abnormal when it occurs at a level of exertion that is not expected to evoke this symptom in a given individual. This could indicate presnce of cardiopulmonary disorders,, in paticular left ventricular dysfunction or COPD.
Syncope Loss of consciousness
Most common cause of syncope Reduced perfucion to the brain.
Possible cause of dizziness and syncope during exercise Things that result from cardiac disorders that prevent the normal rise in cardiac output, such as CAD, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aortic stenosis, and malignant ventricular dysrhythmias.
Syncope and dizziness after exercise: Is it okay? Should not be ignored, these symptoms may occur even in healthy persons as a result of a reduction in venous return to the heart
1lb to kg 0.453592kg
1kg to lb 2.20462lb
1cm to in 0.393701in
1in to cm 2.54cm
Absolute VO2max VO2max that does not take into account weight
TPB (Behavioral Change Theory) Theory of Planned Behavior
Theory of Planned Behavior: Main Idea: The intention to make behavior change leads to change. If a client has a positive attitude about change, feels that it is enjoyable has feelings of controllability and self efficacy and recognizes that the social network values change the will change.
Theory of Planned Behavior: Important Tools: Enhance self-efficacy Explore attitudes related to change Introduce enjoyable activities Utilize group activities or buddy systems Help identify and engage social support
Theory of Planned Behavior: Strengths: TPB treatments significantly increase intention
Theory of Planned Behavior: Limitations: "Intention-behavior gap" inteintion does not always lead to behavior.
SCT (Behavioral Change Theory) Social Cognitive Theory
Social Cognitive Theory: Main Idea Outcome exceptions and self efficacy are the most important factors to behavior change. The physical and social environment is key. One's skill set, reinforcement and incentives copings skills, experiences, and thoughts and feelings determine change.
Social Cognitive Theory: Important Tools Utilize role models Self-monitoring planning and problem solving Increase Social Support Skill development, self efficacy Utilize environment cues and reinforcements Break thought chains (stop feelings and behaviors) Recognize past success
Social Cognitive Theory: Strengths Considers client's environment, thoughts and feelings toward behavior change
Social Cognitive Theory: Limitations: Many factors to consider in one treatment program
GST (Behavioral Change Theory) Goal Settings Theory
Goal Setting Theory: Main Idea: Setting goals causes change, Mostly settings goals that are specific manageable attainable realistic and time specific lead to behavior change. Also important to change is self efficacy feedback, skill level and the perceived importance of the goal.
Goal Setting Theory: Important Tools: Self-directed goals Utilize recording and monitoring tools Problem solving skills Feedback Allow client to express reasons to change Review past successful goals and "what worked" Regular goal settings
Goal Setting Theory: Strengths: Gives clients a concrete plan for change May be utilized within other theories
Goal Setting Theory: Limitations: May not address factors such as thoughts emotions and environment
Small Changes Model: Main Idea Change is achieved through realistic maintainable goals that are small relative to baseline, and cumulative. Combines components such as goal setting feedback and self monitoring to yield achievement of goals and increases in self efficacy to make change.
Small Changes Model: Important Tools: Self selected goals Goals are relative to baseline Goals are small Utilize monitoring tools and feedback Problem solving skills Goals are linked to lifestyle and maintainable across time
Small Changes Model: Strengths: Promotes gradual and cumulative behavior change while increasing self-efficacy
Small Changes Model: Limitations New Theory with only a handful of studies to date. Moreover, little is known about its effectiveness for certain groups of people.
Socioecological Theory: Main Idea Behavior change is a result of not only the invidual factors but also the social structure, environment, community, policy, and law
Socioecological Theory: Important Tools: Address barriers and highlight supports Create and eco-map Work with social network to affect change Help clients explore and ask for social support Implement cues in the environment for change Allow clients to share cultural and community practices
Socioecological Theory: Strengths: Recognizes that clients are affected by their greater environment
Socioecological Theory: Limitations: The environmental structure (including community, policy, and law) can be very difficult to change and change is slow at best.
TTM (Behavioral Change Theory) Transtheoretical Model of Change
Transtheoretical Model of Change: Main Idea: Change is based on one's readiness to change. Clients can move through change stages using the processes of change. Personal Trainers should begin working with the clients in their current stage.
Transtheoretical Model of Change: Important Tools: Decisional Balance Processes of change (self liberation, reinforcement management, dramatic relief) Self-efficacy and confidence in change "Rolling with Resistance"
Transtheoretical Model of Change: Strengths: Helps those at all stages of readiness (no required readiness) Reduces Friction between client and CPT
Transtheoretical Model of Change: Limitations: Research shows mixed results May be more effective for some behaviors than others
HBM (Behavioral Change Theory) Health Belief Model
Health Belief Model: Main Idea: Behavior change is predicted by one's feelings of susceptibility to health consequences, the perceived seriousness of the consequences, and the belief that making changes will reduce the risk.
Health Belief Model: Important Tools: Explore health concerns and vulnerability Education Identify barriers and benifits to change Use of external cues to remind clients of risks and benefits
Health Belief Model: Strengths: Clients have a greater understanding of health
Health Belief Model: Limitations: May not be as effective for clients who do not have identified health risks.
Kcal in Carbohydrates 4kcal
Kcal in Protein 4kcal
Kcal in Fat 9kcal
Kcal in Alcohol 7kcal
VO2 to METs VO2 / 3.5 = METs
Type 1 Slow Twitch
Type 2 Fast Twitch
Type 2a Fast twitch but more endurance
Type 2b Pure fast twitch, lots of power low endurance
Specificity of training Only the muscles that are trained will adapt and change in response to a given program.
SAID Specific Adaptions to Imposed Demands
SAID Principle Indicates that the adaption will be specific to the demand that the exercise places upon the individual.
Progressive overload As the body adapts to a given stimulus, an increase in the stimulus is required for further adaptions and improvements. Thus, if the load or volume is not increased over time progress will be limited.
Variation in training No one program should be used without changing the exercise stimulus over time. An example of increasing variety training is periodized training.
Periodization Training: The phasic manipulation of the training variables, as a means of optimizing desired physiological outcomes while concurrently reducing the incidence of over training. Allows for optimal training and recovery time in a resistance training program.
Prioritization of training: It is difficult to train for all aspects of muscular fitness. Thus within a periodized training program, one needs to focus or prioritize the training goals for each training cycle. This technique is often used in athletics
Training Variables Volume, intensity, frequency, and rest intervals
Fulcrum Joint
Effort Muscle Insertion
Resistance Load
Dynamic Constant External Resistance Devices Essentially free weights and machines. Anything that has a constant resistance.
Order of Exercises: Large muscle groups before small Multi joint before single joint Alternate push/pull for total body Explosive/plymoterics before normal strength training Weak before strong Most intense to least intense
Muscular Strength: Novice: Volume 1-3 sets per exercise
Muscular Strength: Novice: Intensity 60%-70% 1RM 8-12 repetitions
Muscular Strength: Novice: Rest Period 2-3min between sets for core lists 1-2min for assistance exercises
Muscular Strength: Novice: Frequency Novice: 2-3days/week Intermediate: 3-4days/week
Muscular Strength: Advanced: Volume Multiple set programs with systematic variations in volume and intensity
Muscular Strength: Advanced: Intensity Cycling load of 80%-100% 1RM Progressing to heavy loads 1-6 reps
Muscular Strength: Advanced: Rest Period: 2-3 min between sets for core lifts 1-2 min for assistance exercises Extended rest periods may be necessary
Muscular Strength: Advanced: Frequency 4-6 days per week
Muscular Hypertrophy: Novice: Volume 1-3 sets per exercise
Muscular Hypertrophy: Novice: Intensity 70%-85% 1RM 8-12 reps
Muscular Hypertrophy: Novice: Rest Period 1-2 min
Muscular Hypertrophy: Novice: Frequency Novice: 2-3days/week Intermediate: up to 4days/week split routines
Muscular Hypertrophy: Advanced: Volume 3-6 sets per exercise in periodized manner
Muscular Hypertrophy: Advanced: Intensity 70%-100%1RM be used 1-12 repetitions per set 6-12 repetitions for the majority
Muscular Hypertrophy: Advanced: Rest Period 2-3 min for heavy loading 1-2min moderate to moderate-high intensity
Muscular Hypertrophy: Advanced: Frequency 4-6 days/week
Muscular Power: Novice: Volume 1-3 sets per exercise
Muscular Power: Novice: Intensity Light to moderate load 30%-60% of 1RM for upper body exercises 0%-60% of 1RM for lower body exercises 3-6 reps not to failure
Muscular Power: Novice: Rest Period 2-3min between sets for primary exercises when intensity is high 1-2min for assistance ex
Benefits of warming up before cardiovascular exercise: Reduce the chance of injury to muscles or joints by increasing the extensibilty of connective tissue. Improve joint range of motion and function. Help prevent ischemia (lack of oxygen) of the heart, which may occur in clients with sudden exertion.
Recommended Length of warm up: 5-10 minutes
What is a contusion? A bruise
The Female Athlete Triad Low bone density Low Energy Low or no menstrual cycle
BMI underweight Anything below 18.5
Precontemplation An individual that is not active and is not thinking about becoming active.
Contemplation An individual that is not physically active but is thinking about becoming active.
Preparation An individual that is currentlyengaging in some physical activity but not at the recommended level.
Action An individual that is physically active at the recommended level for fewer than 6 months
Maintenance An individual that has been physically active at the recommended level for six or more months.
Created by: JPZepeda