Busy. Please wait.
Log in with Clever

show password
Forgot Password?

Don't have an account?  Sign up 
Sign up using Clever

Username is available taken
show password

Make sure to remember your password. If you forget it there is no way for StudyStack to send you a reset link. You would need to create a new account.
Your email address is only used to allow you to reset your password. See our Privacy Policy and Terms of Service.

Already a StudyStack user? Log In

Reset Password
Enter the associated with your account, and we'll email you a link to reset your password.
Didn't know it?
click below
Knew it?
click below
Don't Know
Remaining cards (0)
Embed Code - If you would like this activity on your web page, copy the script below and paste it into your web page.

  Normal Size     Small Size show me how

Exam 2 SOC 445

Chapter 4,7,8 on Sociology of Juvenile Delinquency

In which areas are crime rates the highest? Poor and deteriorated areas
What were the findings of Shaw and McKay according to the disorganization theory? (3) Crime rates are highest in transition zone and gradually decline away from the center This pattern remains despite population changes Area is the problem not the people
What are the criticisms of disorganization theory? (2) Use official data (doesn’t use dark figures) Neglect minor crime
Low community control (4) Poor schools Few community programs (recreational/after school) Few business job opportunities Little family supervision/monitoring
Low Collective efficacy (Sampson and Laub) (3) Community unable to form an alliance against crime People distrust authority afraid of gang retaliation Residents unwilling to step in & serve as informal control agents
Conditions of disorganized neighborhoods (5) High density (a lot of people) Physical deterioration Limited use of lands Higher percentage of single families Transience (coming/going)
Who introduced Anomie theory? Robert Merton
Anomie Theory (3) Disconnection between culturally valued goal (money) & legitimate means (education) to achieve the goal Emphasis on money (financial success) Anomie is most acute among the poor
According to Anomie theory who becomes delinquent? Delinquency is illegal means to attain goals (innovator)
Relative deprivation theory (4) Poor areas (close to affluent areas) → can create more high crime Feeling deprived Status Frustration Sense of injustice (Peter Judith Blau)
Cultural deviance theory Holds that delinquency is a result of youths' desire to conform to lower-class neighborhoods cultural values that conflict with those of a large society.
Cloward and Ohlin Developed Cohen’s theory. They said that there are three different types of subcultures that young people might enter into; criminal subcultures, conflict subcultures and retreatist subcultures.
Criminal subcultures Emerge in areas where there is a lot of organised adult crime, here there are criminal role models for young people, and they learn how to commit criminal acts. The young people can climb up the professional criminal ladder by committing more crimes.
Conflict subcultures tend to emerge in areas where there is little organised adult crime, so instead of learning how to commit serious monetary crimes the young people instead focus on gaining respect through gang violence.
Retreatist subcultures are for young people who have even failed in the criminal subcultures, these people are ‘double failures’. They tend to retreat to drugs and alcohol abuse to deal with the fact that they have been rejected from other subcultures.
Lower class subculture (Walter Miller) (3) Tough, street smart, hedonistic (pleasure driven), fatalistic, and rebellious
What are the social process theories? 1) Differential association 2) Social learning 3) Social conflict theory 4) General Strain
Differential association theory. Who and what? Sutherland. Consist of nine conceptions Human nature, we are born like a blank paper Who we grow up with and are associated with Antisocial behavior
How is delinquency learned according to differential association theory? learned in the same way as pro-social behavior
How does the learning occur, according to differential association? through communication in intimate groups (by association). We can also learn indirectly
Association varies by? (4) Frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
Frequency (how often) come in contact with the source
Duration (how long it lasts) the longer term association lasts, the more likely we learn
Priority (how early) the timing of when it occurred.
Intensity (importance or prestigious)
What is the difference between social learning theory and differential association theory? How often is it used? It is expanded more than D.A. Association, modeling, and reinforcement. Learning theory is the most used and most tested. Go specifically how individuals learn. Comprehensive look in the learning and stages of learning.
Association Come into contact
Modeling Imitation (adopt techniques)
Reinforcement (2) Positive (rewards/incentives) Negative (punishment/disapproval)
Criticism of Social learning? that we are overly socialized
What are the assumptions of social control theory? We are born with deviant tendencies
Travis Hirschi came up with? Reason? Social bonds Agreeing with the social control theory, but why are we not deviant all the time. He emphasized on younger.
Attachment emotionally connecting with conventional others. Will it prevent from committing crime? Don't want to disappoint them. Keep us in check.
Commitment conventional goals or aspiration. Educational goal… to become higher class not a criminal.
Involvement spending time with your family or if you spend time with friends could cause delinquent behavior
Belief in conventional values. More likely to break the laws if…
Hirshi and Gottfredson came up with? Self-control
Low self control (Hirshi and Gottfredson) Risk-taking/impulsive. Want it now.
Poor Parenting (Hirshi and Gottfredson) NO construction and inconsistency
General strain theory. Who? Negative effect? Agnew.
Failure to achieve goals and loss of positive stimuli? - job loss or being grounded
Presence of negative stimuli Ongoing annoying occurrence. Annoying roommate
Removal of positive stimuli Taking away someone or something close
Negative affective states Negative emotions, anger, frustration, disappointment
Deviant behavior, according to strain theory?(3) Delinquency Drug Dropout
Strain likely to end in deviance... High-magnitude strain Strain seen as unjust Low punishment for deviance High reward for deviance
Comparing theories? Association/learning Born innocent Learn to be prosocial/deviant Bonds/self-control Born deviant Not deviant because parents instill bonds/self- control General strain Deviance as coping Strains: relational/non-relational
Changing American Family Sex roles: Egalitarian (equal roles) Fathers now spend more time with children compared to old days. Mothers spend less time with children the old days. ⅔ minors (66%) live in two-parent family.
Intact family, vary by race: 75% white, non-hispanic 61% hispanic 35% Black
Intact family Biological
Broken family Single parent
Blended family different families
Parent absence and family conflict (4) Delinquents tend to be from broken home (stronger difference in official data-capture the more severe cases) Father absence is related to delinquency (especially among boy). Divorce is worse than parent death Parent Conflict is worse than divorce
Parenting skills, communication (parents should be able to communicate to their children)
Parenting skills, involvement opposite of distant
Parenting skills, supervision (activity of monitoring, know what is happening in the children's life)
Parenting skills, discipline (consistent, be moderate with the behavior directed)
Diana Baumrind Focused on parenting styles and categories of parenting skills that should be grouped: Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, harsh parenting
Authoritative (likely to be respected, but still give rules)- best way of parenting
Authoritarian “children have to obey”
Permissive Easy going punishments
Harsh punishments extreme parenting and strict, maltreatment
Judith Harris's view on causes of juvenile delinquency (4) The nurture assumption. Parenting skills are irrelevant Genetics and environment determine behavior Peer effects greater than parent
Harsh parenting aspects (7) Physical (acting a certain way or failing to act in a certain way with harm) verbal (scream, yell, belittling) Abuse Injury/death Aggression- result in children’s coping skills Less empathy- lack of affection Emotional problem
Sexual abuse and exploitation (4) Betrayal Powerless Stigmatization-might engage in promiscuous behavior. Traumatic sexualization
Most discussed causes of abuse (5) Parents were victims of abuse, Presence of unrelated adults, Isolated families, Substance abuse and child abuse (abuses must be treated simultaneously)
Perpetrator and victims (Gender) (2) (mother is physical abuse, opportunity) Boy more abused, female with sexual abuse
Perpetrator and victims (Age) (2) Young mothers who tend to abuse more Infant and young children are most at risk
Perpetrator and victims (Race) African american are at a higher risk
Perpetrator and victims (Social abuse) Poor or lower class more violent
Perpetrator and victims (substance abuse) Correlated with child abuse
Maltreatment and consequences (Joan McCord’s study) Abuse increases delinquency
Family Criminality and Delinquency. Cambridge Survey (West and Farrington) 1. Father-son similarity 2. Bullies run in families 3. Sibling similarity
Why does crime run in the family? Genetics vs. Environment -Role model -Bad parenting -Strain
Resource dilution theory (family resources, such as attention or money, becomes diluted) Has an impact on the child’s development.
Parental influence Primary influence in early years. Important before age 10 y.o.
Between 8-14? Seek out peers
Delinquent co-offending Crime Committed in small groups
Warr 73% of offenses committed in groups
Cliques small groups Share intimacy
Crowds loosely organized groups
Warr, groups vary? (4) vary by offense age (15-18 years old) Gender (more boys for co-offending) size (between 2-4 persons)
Emphasizing identification Emotional connection
Maltreatment and consequences (Cathy Widom's study) Maltreatment and juvenile arrests Being abused or neglected as a child increased the likelihood of arrest as a juvenile maltreated children were younger at the time of their first arrest and arrested for violent crimes with double the amount of arrests
Like non-delinquents friendships Trust Caring Intimate relationship
Unlike non-delinquents friendships more conflict more jealousy more loyalty
Characteristics of gangs Tags or Symbols Color to identify gang
National Gang Research Center 3+ members, aged 12-24 Group name and other symbols / practices Self-recognition and recognized by others Some permanence and organization Elevated criminal activity
U.S. Gang membership (juveniles) Since the 70's (55,000) to 2012 (850,000)
Increased gangs since 1970's poor economy Job outsourcing profits from drugs Disorganized family Few state assistance Media(serves as a socialization)
Top state of gangs reported CA- 4,927
Youth Gang Survey most in urban areas Thousands relocated to Small cities, Suburban and rural areas
Interstitial groups groups that fall within the cracks of the society
L. Yablonsky Gangs as "near groups,’’ ranging from tight-knit organizations to leaderless mobs
L. Yablonsky, members of gang consists of? a small core Affiliated peripheral (only participate)
Shaw and McKay study? unsupervised children of poor and immigrants.
Frederick Thrasher (The Gang, 1927) weak family control, poverty, and disorganization Gangs in 50s and 60s became very active nationwide
Gang member by Age? Hear of gang before 9 years old Join at ~12 Ages of members are more increasing (more like 55)
Gang member by Gender? In old days, girls part of male gangs (not an independent gang) Auxiliary gang (Female branch of gang) Co-ed gangs Now-girl independent / autonomous gangs
Gang member by race (nationwide)? 50% are Latino / Hispanic gangs 33% African American 10%-Caucasian 5%-Asian
Gang member location? Urban areas
Rochester Youth Developmental Study 30% gang members 65% of delinquency
Why do gangs commit more crime? Selection hypothesis, facilitation hypothesis, and enhancement hypothesis
Selection hypothesis Youth with a history of Violence are drawn to gangs(social control)
Facilitation hypothesis Gangs provide opportunities and support for crime(Social learning)
Enhancement hypothesis Selection and facilitation -both working
Jeffrey Fagan: categorizing gangs Social gang, party gang, delinquent gang, and organized gang
Social gang little delinquency except alcohol / marijuana
Party gang Drug use/sale and some Vandalism
Delinquent gang Serious delinquency / drug involvement
Organized gang High crime, drug use/ sale cohesive and organized
Gang Violence in America Age =12+ Average life expectancy = 19 Gender : 1/3 girls Race: 85% are minority; gangs in all race / ethnicity Gang activity: Urban, no place free of gangs Gangs: generalist (not specialist); versatile crimes
Gang Violence in America (Supporting social structure views) lack Community resources / recreation low wages Broken family lack of employment poverty and inequality
Gang Violence in America (Supporting socialization views) individual level poor upbringing Absence of parents lack of family / love / bonds Supervision Association with gangs Gang within family
Rational choice benefits Respect, protection, excitement, belonging
Gang control (Crash unit) Suppression / deterrence
Gang control (Athletic League) Bonds: Involvement and commitment Association with conventional group
Gang control (Father Greg Boyle-Gang Violence in America) Jobs and counseling: boost self-esteem, love, acceptance, bonds
Created by: ndemetre
Popular Criminal Justice sets




Use these flashcards to help memorize information. Look at the large card and try to recall what is on the other side. Then click the card to flip it. If you knew the answer, click the green Know box. Otherwise, click the red Don't know box.

When you've placed seven or more cards in the Don't know box, click "retry" to try those cards again.

If you've accidentally put the card in the wrong box, just click on the card to take it out of the box.

You can also use your keyboard to move the cards as follows:

If you are logged in to your account, this website will remember which cards you know and don't know so that they are in the same box the next time you log in.

When you need a break, try one of the other activities listed below the flashcards like Matching, Snowman, or Hungry Bug. Although it may feel like you're playing a game, your brain is still making more connections with the information to help you out.

To see how well you know the information, try the Quiz or Test activity.

Pass complete!
"Know" box contains:
Time elapsed:
restart all cards