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Exam 2 SOC 445
Chapter 4,7,8 on Sociology of Juvenile Delinquency
|In which areas are crime rates the highest?
|Poor and deteriorated areas
|What were the findings of Shaw and McKay according to the disorganization theory? (3)
|Crime rates are highest in transition zone and gradually decline away from the center This pattern remains despite population changes Area is the problem not the people
|What are the criticisms of disorganization theory? (2)
|Use official data (doesn’t use dark figures) Neglect minor crime
|Low community control (4)
|Poor schools Few community programs (recreational/after school) Few business job opportunities Little family supervision/monitoring
|Low Collective efficacy (Sampson and Laub) (3)
|Community unable to form an alliance against crime People distrust authority afraid of gang retaliation Residents unwilling to step in & serve as informal control agents
|Conditions of disorganized neighborhoods (5)
|High density (a lot of people) Physical deterioration Limited use of lands Higher percentage of single families Transience (coming/going)
|Who introduced Anomie theory?
|Anomie Theory (3)
|Disconnection between culturally valued goal (money) & legitimate means (education) to achieve the goal Emphasis on money (financial success) Anomie is most acute among the poor
|According to Anomie theory who becomes delinquent?
|Delinquency is illegal means to attain goals (innovator)
|Relative deprivation theory (4)
|Poor areas (close to affluent areas) → can create more high crime Feeling deprived Status Frustration Sense of injustice (Peter Judith Blau)
|Cultural deviance theory
|Holds that delinquency is a result of youths' desire to conform to lower-class neighborhoods cultural values that conflict with those of a large society.
|Cloward and Ohlin
|Developed Cohen’s theory. They said that there are three different types of subcultures that young people might enter into; criminal subcultures, conflict subcultures and retreatist subcultures.
|Emerge in areas where there is a lot of organised adult crime, here there are criminal role models for young people, and they learn how to commit criminal acts. The young people can climb up the professional criminal ladder by committing more crimes.
|tend to emerge in areas where there is little organised adult crime, so instead of learning how to commit serious monetary crimes the young people instead focus on gaining respect through gang violence.
|are for young people who have even failed in the criminal subcultures, these people are ‘double failures’. They tend to retreat to drugs and alcohol abuse to deal with the fact that they have been rejected from other subcultures.
|Lower class subculture (Walter Miller) (3)
|Tough, street smart, hedonistic (pleasure driven), fatalistic, and rebellious
|What are the social process theories?
|1) Differential association 2) Social learning 3) Social conflict theory 4) General Strain
|Differential association theory. Who and what?
|Sutherland. Consist of nine conceptions Human nature, we are born like a blank paper Who we grow up with and are associated with Antisocial behavior
|How is delinquency learned according to differential association theory?
|learned in the same way as pro-social behavior
|How does the learning occur, according to differential association?
|through communication in intimate groups (by association). We can also learn indirectly
|Association varies by? (4)
|Frequency, duration, priority, and intensity
|(how often) come in contact with the source
|(how long it lasts) the longer term association lasts, the more likely we learn
|(how early) the timing of when it occurred.
|(importance or prestigious)
|What is the difference between social learning theory and differential association theory? How often is it used?
|It is expanded more than D.A. Association, modeling, and reinforcement. Learning theory is the most used and most tested. Go specifically how individuals learn. Comprehensive look in the learning and stages of learning.
|Come into contact
|Imitation (adopt techniques)
|Positive (rewards/incentives) Negative (punishment/disapproval)
|Criticism of Social learning?
|that we are overly socialized
|What are the assumptions of social control theory?
|We are born with deviant tendencies
|Travis Hirschi came up with? Reason?
|Social bonds Agreeing with the social control theory, but why are we not deviant all the time. He emphasized on younger.
|emotionally connecting with conventional others. Will it prevent from committing crime? Don't want to disappoint them. Keep us in check.
|conventional goals or aspiration. Educational goal… to become higher class not a criminal.
|spending time with your family or if you spend time with friends could cause delinquent behavior
|in conventional values. More likely to break the laws if…
|Hirshi and Gottfredson came up with?
|Low self control (Hirshi and Gottfredson)
|Risk-taking/impulsive. Want it now.
|Poor Parenting (Hirshi and Gottfredson)
|NO construction and inconsistency
|General strain theory. Who? Negative effect?
|Failure to achieve goals and loss of positive stimuli?
|- job loss or being grounded
|Presence of negative stimuli
|Ongoing annoying occurrence. Annoying roommate
|Removal of positive stimuli
|Taking away someone or something close
|Negative affective states
|Negative emotions, anger, frustration, disappointment
|Deviant behavior, according to strain theory?(3)
|Delinquency Drug Dropout
|Strain likely to end in deviance...
|High-magnitude strain Strain seen as unjust Low punishment for deviance High reward for deviance
|Association/learning Born innocent Learn to be prosocial/deviant Bonds/self-control Born deviant Not deviant because parents instill bonds/self- control General strain Deviance as coping Strains: relational/non-relational
|Changing American Family
|Sex roles: Egalitarian (equal roles) Fathers now spend more time with children compared to old days. Mothers spend less time with children the old days. ⅔ minors (66%) live in two-parent family.
|Intact family, vary by race:
|75% white, non-hispanic 61% hispanic 35% Black
|Parent absence and family conflict (4)
|Delinquents tend to be from broken home (stronger difference in official data-capture the more severe cases) Father absence is related to delinquency (especially among boy). Divorce is worse than parent death Parent Conflict is worse than divorce
|Parenting skills, communication
|(parents should be able to communicate to their children)
|Parenting skills, involvement
|opposite of distant
|Parenting skills, supervision
|(activity of monitoring, know what is happening in the children's life)
|Parenting skills, discipline
|(consistent, be moderate with the behavior directed)
|Focused on parenting styles and categories of parenting skills that should be grouped: Authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, harsh parenting
|(likely to be respected, but still give rules)- best way of parenting
|“children have to obey”
|Easy going punishments
|extreme parenting and strict, maltreatment
|Judith Harris's view on causes of juvenile delinquency (4)
|The nurture assumption. Parenting skills are irrelevant Genetics and environment determine behavior Peer effects greater than parent
|Harsh parenting aspects (7)
|Physical (acting a certain way or failing to act in a certain way with harm) verbal (scream, yell, belittling) Abuse Injury/death Aggression- result in children’s coping skills Less empathy- lack of affection Emotional problem
|Sexual abuse and exploitation (4)
|Betrayal Powerless Stigmatization-might engage in promiscuous behavior. Traumatic sexualization
|Most discussed causes of abuse (5)
|Parents were victims of abuse, Presence of unrelated adults, Isolated families, Substance abuse and child abuse (abuses must be treated simultaneously)
|Perpetrator and victims (Gender) (2)
|(mother is physical abuse, opportunity) Boy more abused, female with sexual abuse
|Perpetrator and victims (Age) (2)
|Young mothers who tend to abuse more Infant and young children are most at risk
|Perpetrator and victims (Race)
|African american are at a higher risk
|Perpetrator and victims (Social abuse)
|Poor or lower class more violent
|Perpetrator and victims (substance abuse)
|Correlated with child abuse
|Maltreatment and consequences (Joan McCord’s study)
|Abuse increases delinquency
|Family Criminality and Delinquency. Cambridge Survey (West and Farrington)
|1. Father-son similarity 2. Bullies run in families 3. Sibling similarity
|Why does crime run in the family?
|Genetics vs. Environment -Role model -Bad parenting -Strain
|Resource dilution theory
|(family resources, such as attention or money, becomes diluted) Has an impact on the child’s development.
|Primary influence in early years. Important before age 10 y.o.
|Seek out peers
|Crime Committed in small groups
|73% of offenses committed in groups
|small groups Share intimacy
|loosely organized groups
|Warr, groups vary? (4)
|vary by offense age (15-18 years old) Gender (more boys for co-offending) size (between 2-4 persons)
|Maltreatment and consequences (Cathy Widom's study)
|Maltreatment and juvenile arrests Being abused or neglected as a child increased the likelihood of arrest as a juvenile maltreated children were younger at the time of their first arrest and arrested for violent crimes with double the amount of arrests
|Like non-delinquents friendships
|Trust Caring Intimate relationship
|Unlike non-delinquents friendships
|more conflict more jealousy more loyalty
|Characteristics of gangs
|Tags or Symbols Color to identify gang
|National Gang Research Center
|3+ members, aged 12-24 Group name and other symbols / practices Self-recognition and recognized by others Some permanence and organization Elevated criminal activity
|U.S. Gang membership (juveniles)
|Since the 70's (55,000) to 2012 (850,000)
|Increased gangs since 1970's
|poor economy Job outsourcing profits from drugs Disorganized family Few state assistance Media(serves as a socialization)
|Top state of gangs reported
|Youth Gang Survey
|most in urban areas Thousands relocated to Small cities, Suburban and rural areas
|groups that fall within the cracks of the society
|Gangs as "near groups,’’ ranging from tight-knit organizations to leaderless mobs
|L. Yablonsky, members of gang consists of?
|a small core Affiliated peripheral (only participate)
|Shaw and McKay study?
|unsupervised children of poor and immigrants.
|Frederick Thrasher (The Gang, 1927)
|weak family control, poverty, and disorganization Gangs in 50s and 60s became very active nationwide
|Gang member by Age?
|Hear of gang before 9 years old Join at ~12 Ages of members are more increasing (more like 55)
|Gang member by Gender?
|In old days, girls part of male gangs (not an independent gang) Auxiliary gang (Female branch of gang) Co-ed gangs Now-girl independent / autonomous gangs
|Gang member by race (nationwide)?
|50% are Latino / Hispanic gangs 33% African American 10%-Caucasian 5%-Asian
|Gang member location?
|Rochester Youth Developmental Study
|30% gang members 65% of delinquency
|Why do gangs commit more crime?
|Selection hypothesis, facilitation hypothesis, and enhancement hypothesis
|Youth with a history of Violence are drawn to gangs(social control)
|Gangs provide opportunities and support for crime(Social learning)
|Selection and facilitation -both working
|Jeffrey Fagan: categorizing gangs
|Social gang, party gang, delinquent gang, and organized gang
|little delinquency except alcohol / marijuana
|Drug use/sale and some Vandalism
|Serious delinquency / drug involvement
|High crime, drug use/ sale cohesive and organized
|Gang Violence in America
|Age =12+ Average life expectancy = 19 Gender : 1/3 girls Race: 85% are minority; gangs in all race / ethnicity Gang activity: Urban, no place free of gangs Gangs: generalist (not specialist); versatile crimes
|Gang Violence in America (Supporting social structure views)
|lack Community resources / recreation low wages Broken family lack of employment poverty and inequality
|Gang Violence in America (Supporting socialization views)
|individual level poor upbringing Absence of parents lack of family / love / bonds Supervision Association with gangs Gang within family
|Rational choice benefits
|Respect, protection, excitement, belonging
|Gang control (Crash unit)
|Suppression / deterrence
|Gang control (Athletic League)
|Bonds: Involvement and commitment Association with conventional group
|Gang control (Father Greg Boyle-Gang Violence in America)
|Jobs and counseling: boost self-esteem, love, acceptance, bonds