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Crim Ch4 Vocab

Vocab for chapter 4 - rational choice theory

TermDefinition
Rational Choice Theory the view that crime is a function of a decision making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act
Classical Criminology a theory of crime suggesting that criminal behavior is a matter of personal choice, made after the individual considers its costs and benefits, and that the criminal behavior reflects the needs of the offender
Offense-Specific Crime a crime in which the offender reacts selectively to the characteristics of a particular criminal act
Offender-Specific Crime a crime in which offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs, and fears before deciding to commit the criminal act
Edgework the excitement or exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations
Seductions of Crime the situational inducements or immediate benefits that draw offenders into law violations
Situational Crime Prevention a method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings
Defensible Space the principle that crime can be prevented or displaced by modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity that individuals have to commit crime
Crime Discouragers people who serve as guardians of property or people
Diffusion an effect that occurs when efforts to prevent one crime unintentionally prevent another
Discouragement an effect that occurs when crime control efforts targeting a particular locale help reduce crime in surrounding areas and populations
Displacement an effect that occurs when crime control efforts simply move, or redirect, offenders to less heavily guarded alternative targets
Extinction an effect that occurs when crime control reduction programs produce a short-term positive effect, but benefits dissipate as criminals adjust to new conditions
Replacement an effect that occurs when criminals try new offenses they had previously avoided because situational crime prevention programs neutralized their crime of choice
General Deterrence a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweigh the benefits
Specific Deterrence the view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts
Incarceration confinement in jail or prison
Recidivism Repetition of criminal behavior
Incapacitation Effect the view hat placing offenders behind bars during their prime crime years reduces their opportunity to commit crime and helps lower the crime rate
Created by: nracine14