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NASM CPT-Ch. 2 2013

Basic Exercise Science

Human movement is accomplished through the functional integration of three systems within the human body . . . which are? The nervous, skeletal and muscular systems, also called the kenetic chain.
The central nervous system is composed of the . . . ? Brain and the spinal cord
What are the 3 primary functions of the nervous system? sensory, integrative, and motor functions
What is the ability of the nervous system to sense changes in either the internal or external environment? Sensory Function of the nervous system
What is the ability of the nervous system to analyze and interpret sensory information to allow for proper decision making, which produces the appropriate response? Integrative Function of the nervous system
What is the neuromuscular response to the sensory information. Motor Function
What is the cumulative sensory imput to the central nervous system from all mechanoreceptors that sense body position and limb movement. Propriocception
What is the functional unit of the nervous system? Neuron
What is the core of the nervous system? brain, spinal cord, and peripheral ganglia.
What 3 main parts are neurons? cell body, axon and dendrites.
What are the 3 main classifications on nuerons? Sensory (afferent), Interneurons (transmit nerve impulses from one neuron to another), Motor (efferent) neurons
Which nuerons respond to touch, sound, light, and other stimuli, and transmit nerve impulses from effector sites to the brain and spinal cord? Afferent or Sensory Nuerons
Which nuerons transmit nerve impulses from one nueron to another? Interneurons
Which nuerons transmit nerve impulses from the brain and spinal cord to the effector sites such as muscles and glands? Motor nuerons
The nervous system is composed of the . . . Central Nervous System and Peripheral Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord make up the . . . Central nervous system
The cranial and spinal nerves that spread throughout the body are called the Peripheral nervous system
What is the somatic nervous system? nerves that serve the outer areas of the body and skeletal muscle, and are largely responsible for the voluntary control of movement.
What is the Autonomic nervous system? neural input to the involuntary systems of the body (heart, glands, digestive)
Sensory receptors are subdivided into 4 catagories. What are they? Mechanoreceptors, Chemorecepters, nocicepters, and photoreceptors
Which receptors respond to touch and pressure? Mechanoreceptors
Which receptors respond to pain? nociceptors
Which receptors respond to smell and taste? chemoreceptors
Which receptors respond to light? photoreceptors
Where are mechanorecpetors located? muscles, tendons, ligaments, and joint capsules and include muscle spindles, golgi tendon organs and joint receptors
What are receptors sensitive to change in length of the muscle and the rate of that change? muscle spindles - stretch
What are the receptors sensitive to change in tension of the muscle and the rate of that change? Golgi Tendon Organs
Activation of what will cause the muscle to relax, which prevents the muscle from excessive stress or injury. Golgi Tendon Organ
What are located in and around the joint capsule, and respond to pressure, acceleration and deceleration of the joint? Joint Receptors
What is the bodys framework, composed of bones and joints called? Skeletal system
what provide a resting ground for muscles and protection of vital organs? Bones
What are the junctions of bones, muscles and connective tissue at which movement occurs. Also known as an articulation? Joints
What is a portion of the skeletal system that consists of the skull, rib cage, and vertebral column? Axial Skeleton
Appendicular Skeleton Portion of the skeletal system that includes the upper and lower extremities.
What are osteoblasts? A type of cell that is responsible for bone formation.
What are osteoclasts? A type of cell that removes bone tissue.
What is the process o resorption and formation of bone? Remodeling
How many bones are in the axial skeleton? 80
How many bones are in the appendicular? 126
What are the two functions of bones? levers and support
What are the 5 types of bones? long, short, flat, irregular, sesamoid
What are two examples of long bones? femur, humorus
What are two examples of short bones? carpals of hand, tarsals of feet - consist of spongy bone tissue to maximize shock absorption
What are two examples of flat bones? scapulae, sternum, ribs, illium, cranial - (thin, protective)- protection of internal structures
What are two examples of sesamoid bones Patella - small often round bones embedded in a joint capsule or found in locations where a tendon passes over a joint.
What is an example of a irregular bone Vertebrae, pelvic bones - Unique shape and function-
What is the end of a long bone which is mainly composed of cancellous bone, and house much of the red marrow involved in red blood cell production. A primary cite for bone growth. Epiphysis
What is the shaft portion of a long bone? Diaphysis
What is the region of long bone connecting the diaphysis to the epiphysis. It is a layer of subdividing cartilaginous cells in which growth in length of the dialysis occurs. Epiphyseal Plate
What is the dense membrane composes of fibrous connective tissue that closely wraps all bone, except that of the articulating surfaces in joints, which are covered by a synovial membrane. Periosteum
What is the central cavity of bone shafts where the marrow is stored? Medullar Cavity
What is the cartilage that covers the articular surfaces of the bone? Articular Cartilage
What is the flattened or indented portions of bone which can be muscle attachment sites? depressions or fossa or sulcus
What are the projections protruding from the bone where muscles, tendons and ligaments can attach? processes, condyle, epicondyle, tubercle, and trochanter
What are the first 7 bones of the vertebral column called? Cervical spine C1 - C7
What are the second 12 bones for the vertebral column called? Thoracic Spine (T1 -12)
What are the 5 bones of the low back called? Lumbar spine (L1 - 5)
The adult human spine has 3 major curvitures which are . . a posterior concavity, anterior thoracic, and a posterior lumbar curvature
what are Arthrokinematics? Joint Motion
What are the 3 major joint movements? roll, slide and spin
The femoral condyles moving over the tibial condyles during a squat is an example of a . . . joint. Roll
The tibial condyles moving across the femoral during a knee extension is an example of . .. joint slide
The head of the radius rotating on the end of the humerus during pronation and supination of the forearm is an example of a . . . joint Spinning
Joints that are held together by a joint capsule and ligaments and are most associated with movement in the body are what kind of joints? Synovial Joints, 80%
There are 5 types of synovial joints in the body which are: gliding, condyloid, hinge, saddle, pivot, and ball and socket
The name of the joint that moves back and forth is gliding (carpels of the hand)
The name of the joint that have a condyle that fits into a elliptical cavity is called a . . Condyloid joints
Which joint is uniaxial allowing movement in one plane of motion, sagittal. Hinge joint (elbow, toe, ankle)
Which joint is only found in the thumb? saddle joint
Which plane of motion are the pivot joints? Transverse plane
Which joint allows movement in all three planes? Ball and Socket
Where are the nonsynovial joints? The skull
What is primary connective tissue that connects bones together and provides stability, input to the nervous system, guidance and the limitation of improper joint movement? Ligament - very little blood supply. They do not heal well.
What connects bone to bone? Ligament
Ligaments are made up of? collogen and elastin
The nervous system is the control center for movement production, and the skeletal syestem provides the stuctural framework for our bodies, and the ____________ system is what moves the body. Muscular
What is the series of muscles that moves the skeleton? Muscular System
What are the 3 types of muscles in the body? Cardiac, Skeletal and smooth
What is multiple bundles of muscle fibers held together by connective tissue? Muscle
What is the layer of connective tissue that is underneath the fascia and surrounds the muscle? Epimysium
What is the connective tissue that surrounds the fascicles? Perimysium
What is the deepest layer of connective tissue that surrounds individual muscle fibers? Endomysium
What are the structures that attach muscle to bone and provide an anchor for muscles to produce force? Tendon
What is the functional unit of the muscle that produces muscular contraction and consists of repeating sections of actin and myosin? Sarcomere
A muscle fiber is a like a lasagna in that it is layered with thin and thick filaments. The thin are called? and the thick are called? actin (thin) and myosin (thick)
What is a contraction of a muscle generated by neural stimulation? Neural Activation
What are the two structures that are important to contraction? Tropomyosin and troponin - both are located on actin filament. Tropomyosin blocks myosin from binding and Troponin helps myosin bind.
What is a motor neuron and all of the muscle fibers it innervates. Motor Unit
What are the chemical messengers that cross the neuromuscular junction (synapse) to transmit electrical impulses from the nerve to the muscle? Neurotransmitters
Acetylcholine is a ? neurotransmitter
What is the Sliding Filament Theory? The sliding filament theory describes how think and thin filaments within the sarcomere slide past one another, shortenting the entire length of the sarcomere and thus shortening muscle and producing force.
Is Muscle fiber Type I a slow or fast twitch? slow
Is Muscle Fiber Type II fast or slow twitch? fast
Type II muscle fibers are referred to as the white fibers because of their. Low oxidation capacity (ability to use oxygen)
What kind of muscle is the prime mover? i.e. chest press (Pectoralis major), overhead press (deltoid), row Latissimus dorsi), squat (gluteus maximus) agonist
What type of muscle assists the agonist? i.e. chest press (anterior deltoid, triceps), Overhead press (triceps), row (posterior deltoid, biceps), squat (hamstring complex) synergist
What type of muscle stabilizes while the agonist and antagonist work? i.e. chest press (rotator cuff), overhead press (rotator cuff), row (rotator cuff), squat (transversus abdominis) Stabilizer
What is the muscle that opposes the prime mover called?i.e. chest press (posterior deltoid), Overhead Press (Latissimus dorsi), Row (Pectoralis Major), Squat (Psoas) Antagonist
What means "hormone secreting." endocrine system
What are the primary glands in the endocrine system? Hypothalmus, Pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands
Which gland is considered the "master" gland of the endocrine system? Pituitary Gland
The two organs which link the nervous system and the endocrine system are: Hypothalmus and Pituitary
Which organ controls blood glucose and produces two specific hormones insulin and glucagon? pancreas
Where does Glucose enter the blood stream? small intestine
What helps a cell receive glucose? Insulin, results in a drop of blood glucose levels. Insulincauses cells in the liver, muscle, and fat to take up glucose from the blood, storing it as glycogen in the liver and muscle.
Waht functions to raise blood glucose levels by triggering the release of glycogen stores from the liver. Glucagon
Which hormone increases heart rate, stroke volume, elevates blood glucose, redistributes blood to working tissues, and opens up airwaves? Epinephrine (adrenaline)
What breaks down tissue? Stress hormone? Cortisol
Where is growth hormone released from? Pituitary Gland
Which organ is responsible for metabolism? Thyroid, regulated by the pituitary gland