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FSHN 150- Unit 1

three macronutrients carbohydrates, fats, proteins
how many essential vitamins? 13
how many essential minerals? 21
under stress, females... increase food intake
under stress, males decrease food intake
if animals have access to water and exercise... they will select a diet that's most suitable for them
hunger a physiological inclination to adapt to fat stores
appetite not adaptive & may be inappropriate
glucoseneogenesis the process of converting amino acids into glucose
water is what percent of food (in weight)? 60%
water accounts for what percent of body tissue? 70%
how many fat soluble vitamins? 4
how many water soluble vitamins? 9
one calorie= the heat to warm 1g water 1 degree Celsius
how many kcal is 1 pound of body fat? 3500
carbohydrates are how many kcal per gram? 4 kcal
protein is how many kcal per gram? 4 kcal
fat is how many kcal per gram? 9 kcal
alcohol is how many kcal per gram? 7 kcal
three uses of energy in the body muscular activity, metabolic reactions, heat
carbs can be converted into bodily carbs, fat, protein
protein can be converted into bodily carbs, fat
fat can be converted into bodily fat
alcohol can be converted into bodily fat
fat CANNOT be converted into bodily carbs/fat
three ways of measuring nutritional status diet assessment, biochemical tests, clinical exam
4 types of biochemical tests blood, urine, fecal, tissue analysis
anthropometry a series of non-invasive measurements that give info to extrapolate lean body mass and body fat
frank deficiency <%10 RDA
marginal deficiency 50-70% RDA
four stages of nutrient deficiency deficiency, declining stores, abnormal functions, overt symptoms
primary deficiency not enough of a certain nutrient
secondary deficiency some other factor is interfering with the primary nutrient deficiency
nutrient density nutrient content expressed relative to kcal content
two overarching concepts of 2010 dietary guidelines maintain a calorie balance to sustain a healthy weight, focus on consuming nutrient-dense foods
top source of calories for adults alcohol
top source of calories for children pizza and soda
top source of calories for young children milk
foods to reduce sodium, fats (saturated, trans, cholesterol), calories from added sugar, refined grains, alcohol
foods to increase fruit, veggies, whole grains, milk, seafood, oils
nutrients of public health concern (4) potassium, fiber, calcium, vitamin D
eat __ fruit and veggies per day >4.5 cups
eat __ fish per week >2 3.5-oz servings
eat __% fiber (of total carbs) 10%
eat ___ sodium per day <1500mg
drink ___ of soda per week <36 oz (450 kcal)
half your plate should be fruits and veggies
half of your grains should be whole grains
EAR estimated avg requirement (covers ~50% of individuals)
RDA recommended dietary allowance (EAR+safety factor- ~98% of individuals)
AI adequate intake (observed- surrogate for nutrients lacking EAR/RDA)
UL tolerable upper intake level
EER estimated energy requirement (no safety factor)
DRI dietary reference intakes
DRI for carbs 45%-65% of kcal
DRI for fat 20%-35% of kcal
DRI for protein 10%-35% of kcal
DRI for fiber 38 g for men; 25 g for women
2 things on nutrition facts that are not necessary nutrients sugars, cholesterol
2 vitamins required on nutrition facts vitamin A, vitamin C
2 minerals required on nutrition facts calcium, iron
ingredients are ordered by mass
"sugar free" less than 0.5g
"reduced sugar" >25% less
"low calorie" <40kcal
"reduced calorie" >25% fewer
"good source" (of a vit/min) 10-19% DV
"high" (of a vit/min) >20% DV
"natural" nothing synthetic
"extra lean" <5g of fat
"lean" <10g of fat
"light Na" 50% less
"reduced Na" 25% less
whole food as close to the agricultural source as possible (max nutrient density- w/ exception of whole milk)
partitioned foods made from components extracted from whole foods (ALWAYS less nutrient dense)
processed foods made from whole foods+ freezing (bad), dehydrating (bad), enriching (good)
paleolithic diet ~50% kcal from wild meat (fewer carbs, fat, cereal grains, daity) & increased exercise
observational human studies let people eat, observe (prospective or retrospective)
interventional human studies experimental- can infer causation
case-control find groups that already eat a certain way, compare groups
to become an RD undergrad degree in dietetics, 12 mo internship, pass AND exam
AND academy of nutrition and dietetics
3 types of RDs clinical, public health, food service
# of cells in the human body 100 trillion
what percent of human cells are microbial? 90%
# of human genes 30,000
# of human proteins 100,000
# of proteins per cell 5,000
cholesterol's purpose in the cell membrane structure
chyme food/mucus mixture that moves through the GI tract
peristalsis consticting and relaxing to push a bolus through GI tract
3 layers of muscles that make peristalsis work x axis, y axis, 40 degrees
enterocytes cosal epithelial cells that absorb nutrients
bile breaks down fat at the top of small intestine
duodenum 1st part of small intestine
jejunum middle of small intestine
gallbladder stores bile for secretion into small intestine
ilium end of small intestine
veinous blood goes... to the liver
lymph goes... to the aorta
nutrients the stomach absorbs alcohol (20%), water (minor amt)
nutrients the large intestine absorbs Na, K, Cl, some fatty acids, water (10%-30%)
arterial blood arterioles->capillaries
lymph (in extracellular space) delivers O2/nutrients to cells, receives CO2/waste from cells
hepatic portal blood goes to liver (low in oxygen!)
liver extracts & stores some nutrients (rest go to the heart)
left ventricle pumps to the rest of the body via arteries
hormones are a class of ____ proteins
insulin released due to increased blood glucose *anabolizes glucose to glycogen
glucagon released due to depleted blood glucose (breaks down glycogen) *catabolizes glycogen to glucose
endocrine vs. exocrine endocrine- secreted straight into blood exocrine- secreted via a duct
pancreatic amylase (exocrine) breaks down covalent bonds in carbohydrates
lymphatic system removes foreign substances from the blood and lymph, combats disease, maintains tissue fluid balance, aids in fat absorption
anabolic processes (def'n) builds up
catabolic processes (def'n) breaks down
evaluating health claims (7) strength, consistency, dose-response, cause-effect, coherence, predictive value, alternative theories
phytochemicals not dietarily essential- but provide health benefits
genistein a phytochemical- (in soy) structure similar to estrogen
resveratrol a phytochemical- (in grapes) antioxidant and anticancer effects
monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose
disaccharides sucrose, maltose, lactose
sucrose glucose-fructose
maltose glucose-glucose
lactose glucose-galactose
disaccharidases break down the covalent bonds b/w monosaccharides in disaccharides
starch a polysaccharide- is BRANCHED
fiber a polysaccharide- is NOT branched indigestible to humans (partially fermented)
why branching in polysaccharides? takes up less space, can be broken down faster
amylopectin a branched polysaccharide found in plants (stored energy)
amylose a linear polysaccharide found in plants
glycogen the polysaccharide found in human cells (energy storage)
where is glycogen stored? liver, muscle
volatile fatty acids fermented fiber- creates a small amount of energy
soluble fiber (2- and functions) pectins, hemicellulose (lower cholesterol, slow glucose absorption)
insoluble fiber (2- and functions) hemicellulose, cellulose (softens stool)
crude fiber analysis underestimates food fiber due to harsh chemicals
fiber+water increased fullness, softens stool
fiber+cholesterol decreased blood cholesterol (& heart disease)
divericula found in older adults- can burst if fiber intake is not adequate
fiber+toxins toxins are excreted rather than absorbed
fiber+minerals (NOT ADVANTAGEOUS) excreted w/ fiber rather than absorbed
Created by: melaniebeale