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Cardio Chapter 33

Assessment and Management of Patients With Hematologic Disorders

QuestionAnswer
absolute neutrophil count: a calculation of the number of circulating neutrophils, derived from the total white blood cells (WBCs) and the percentage of neutrophils counted in a microscope’s visual field
anemia: decreased red blood cell (RBC) count
anergy: diminished reactivity to antigens (transient or complete)
angiogenesis: formation of new blood vessels
angular cheilosis: cracking sore at corner of mouth
aplasia: lack of cellular development (eg, of cells within the bone marrow)
band cell: slightly immature neutrophil
blast cell: primitive WBC
cytokines: hormones produced by leukocytes that are vital to regulation of hematopoiesis, apoptosis, and immune responses
D-dimer: test to measure fibrin breakdown; considered more specific than fibrin degradation products in the diagnosis of disseminated intravascular coagulation
differentiation: development of functions and characteristics that are different from those of the parent stem cell
erythrocyte: see red blood cell
erythrocyte sedimentation rate: laboratory test that measures the rate of settling of RBCs; elevation is indicative of inflammation; also called the “sed rate”
erythroid cells: any cell that is or will become a mature RBC
erythropoiesis: process of formation of RBCs
erythropoietin: hormone produced primarily by the kidney; necessary for erythropoiesis
fibrin: filamentous protein; basis of thrombus and blood clot
fibrinogen: protein converted into fibrin to form thrombus and clot
fibrinolysis: process of breakdown of fibrin clot
granulocyte: granulated WBC (neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil); sometimes used synonymously with neutrophil
haptoglobin: blood protein synthesized by liver; binds free hemoglobin released from erythrocytes, which is then removed by the reticuloendothelial
hematocrit: percentage of total blood volume consisting of RBCs
hematopoiesis: complex process of the formation and maturation of blood cells
hemoglobin: iron-containing protein of RBCs; delivers oxygen to tissues
hemolysis: destruction of RBCs; can occur within or outside of the vasculature
hemosiderin: iron-containing pigment derived from breakdown of hemoglobin
hemostasis: intricate balance between clot formation and clot dissolution
histiocytes: cells present in all loose connective tissue, capable of phagocytosis
hypochromia: pallor within the RBC caused by decreased hemoglobin content
left shift, or shift to the left: increased release of immature forms of WBCs from the bone marrow in response to need
leukocyte: see white blood cell
leukemia: uncontrolled proliferation of WBCs, often immature
leukopenia: less-than-normal amount of WBCs in circulation
lymphocyte: form of WBC involved in immune functions
lymphoid: pertaining to lymphocytes
lysis: destruction of cells
macrophage: reticuloendothelial cells capable of phagocytosis
microcytosis: smaller-than-normal RBCs
monocyte: large WBC that becomes a macrophage when it leaves the circulation and moves into body tissues
myeloid: pertaining to nonlymphoid blood cells that differentiate into RBCs, platelets, macrophages, mast cells, and various WBCs
myelopoiesis: formation and maturation of cells derived from myeloid stem cell
neutropenia: lower-than-normal number of neutrophils
neutrophil: fully mature WBC capable of phagocytosis; primary defense against bacterial infection
normochromic: normal RBC color, indicating normal amount of hemoglobin
normocytic: normal size of RBC
nucleated RBC: immature form of RBC; portion of nucleus remains within the RBC
oxyhemoglobin: combined form of oxygen and hemoglobin; found in arterial blood
pancytopenia: abnormal decrease in WBCs, RBCs, and platelets
petechiae: tiny capillary hemorrhages
phagocytosis: process of cellular ingestion and digestion of foreign bodies
plasma: liquid portion of blood plasminogen:
platelet: thrombocyte; a cellular component of blood involved in blood coagulation
poikilocytosis: variation in shape of RBCs
polycythemia: excess RBCs
red blood cell (RBC): erythrocyte; a cellular component of blood involved in the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide
reticulocytes: slightly immature RBCs, usually only 1% of total circulating RBCs
reticuloendothelial system: complex system of cells throughout body capable of phagocytosis
serum: portion of blood remaining after coagulation occurs
stem cell: primitive cell, capable of self-replication and differentiation into myeloid or lymphoid stem cell thrombin:
thrombocyte: see platelet
thrombocytopenia: lower-than-normal platelet count
thrombocytosis: higher-than-normal platelet count
white blood cell (WBC): leukocyte; one of several cellular components of blood involved in defense of the body; subtypes include neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and lymphocytessystem
Created by: jhrobins99