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Nutrition Final '12

Flashcards for my Nutrition Final

Nutrition is important because it can have which of the following effects? 1) maintain energy 2) increase vitality 3) prevent certain diseases
Scurvy is a disease caused by the deficiency of: Vitamin C
All of the following are considered nutrients except : a) carbohydrates b) vitamins c) alcohol d) fats C) alcohol
Which is NOT a water soluble vitamin? Vitamin K
Which class of nutrients is the primary source of fuel for the body? Carbohydrates
Hunger is the psychological desire to eat food. False
The balance part of a healthful diet means that there are a combination of foods that provide a balance of nutrients. True
The emphasis of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans section that states, "Limit Fats, Salt and Sugar" can be summed up with one word describing a healthful diet: Moderation
The EAR represents nutrient intake levels for 97% to 98% of healthy individuals. False
My Pyramid is a set of principles developed by the US department of Health and Human Services and the US Department of Agriculture to assist Americans in designing a healthful diet and lifestyle. False
The %DV values per serving given for nutrients on the food label are based on 2500 Kcal diet. False
Both protein and carbohydrates contain 4 Kcals er gram, dietary fats contains _____ Kcal per gram. 9
How many Kcals of protein are in a 23 gram piece of protein? 92
If a cookie has 30 grams of carbs, 8 grams of protein, and 15 grams of fat, what is the percent of calories coming from fat? 47%
A health professional with a bachelor's degree in a defined program of nutrition and dietetics is a _______? Registered Dietitian
Nutrition is a science discipline that has been studied for centuries. False
A ______ is a scientific process that tests a research question. An experiment.
Epidemiological studies are tightly controlled experiments that include some sort of intervention. False
Drawbacks of animal studies include concerns of applicability of results to humans. True
The cellular structure where genetic information is located is called the: Nucleus
Which order is correct? Cell, Tissue, Organ, System
The psychological desire to consume foods is known as a: Appetite
Chewing is also referred to as: Mechanical Digestion
When swallowing the brain directs the closing of the flap of tissue over the trachea to prevent choking. The flap is called the: Epiglottis
In which organ would you find gastrin, pepsin, and lipase? The stomach
The______ is the microvilli of the small intestine's lining that greatly increases its absorptive capacity. Brush border
The gallbladder assists in the digestion of: Fat
The pancreas makes digestive enzymes to breakdown which nutrients? Carbohydrates, protein and fat.
Foods that are not digested will be absorbed into the blood stream, therefore these undigested foods will not contribute energy or any building blocks to body cells. True
Foods or products that provide or help produce good bacteria in the large intestines are called: Probiotics
The esophagus secretes mucus to protect the cell layers from HCI. False
Almost all cases of peptic ulcers occur in the large intestines. False
The 8 major food allergens cause over 90% of all documented food allergies in the U.S. True
Food intolerances are the same as food allergies. False
Untreated celiac disease can lead to: Malabsorption
Chronic diarrhea is usually caused by an infection from bacteria, virus or parasite. False
Any person going two days without a bowel movement is considered constipated. False
Irritable Bowel Syndrome is caused by food allergies. False
Which of the following is NOT a regulator of satiety in the body? A) GI tract B) hypothalamus C) hormones D) kidneys D) kidneys
Plants make ______ through the process of photosynthesis. Glucose
Simple carbohydrates are commonly referred to as: Sugars
Which is a disaccharide consisting of one glucose and one galactose model? Lactose
_________ is the digestible form of carbohydrate found stored in plants. Starch
Soluble dietary fibers is digestible by human enzymes. False
________ is the storage for of carbohydrates in animals. Glycogen
Carbohydrates in the diet are necessary to spare body protein and prevent ketosis. True
Carbohydrate digestion: Begins in the mouth, ceases in the stomach, then continues in the small intestine.
Lactose intolerance is the same as a milk allergy. False
In order to be absorbed out of the small intestine and into the body, carbohydrate must be digested down to: Monosaccharides
Fiber may reduce the risk of heart disease by blocking the absorption of dietary ______ in the bloodstream. Cholesterol
When blood sugar is high ______ is released, when blood sugar is low ________ is released. insulin and glucagon
Instant mashed potatoes have a higher glycemic index than an orange does. True
The definition of "Added Sugars" is: The sugar added to food during processing and in food preparation.
Only "Added Sugars" can cause tooth decay: False
There appears to be a relationship between increased intake of sugar and obesity. True
All of the following are benefits of eating food rich in fiber EXCEPT: Helping to give you more energy
Which of the following statements concerning Type 1 diabetes is FALSE? Obesity and inactivity increase the risk of acquiring this type of diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes occurs least often in which the following ethnic groups? Caucasians
Fatty acids in foods influence the composition of fats in the body and health. True
The dietary source of fatty acids determine the saturation of fatty acids. False
We know that the saturated fats increase the LDL cholesterol levels thus increasing risk of heart disease. Coconut and Palm oil are saturated fats from plant sources but do not raise LDL cholesterol levels like animal saturated fats do. False
The best source of EPA and DHA in the diet are: Cold water fish
Which of the following is NOT true concerning phospholipids? They are an essential part of your diet.
Dietary cholesterol is found only in animal products or plant products. Animal products.
Which of the following is not a function of fat in the human body? Carries the water soluble nutrients.
One of the functions of fat in the body is to provide fluidity of the cell membrane for proper cell function. True
Fats are absorbed the same way carbohydrates and proteins are absorbed. False
Long chain fatty acids and larger products of lipid digestion do not get absorbed directly into the bloodstream. Instead, the intestinal cell absorbs these products and repackages them into ______, which is a class of lipoproteins. Chylomicrons
The following are all primary fates of absorbed dietary fats EXCEPT: Conversion to glucose when carbohydrate intake is low.
It is thought that people eat too much saturated and monosaturated fats. False
All of the 300 Kcals in pea soup comes from a combo of carbohydrate, fat and protein. If carbs make up 40% of the kcals and protein makes up 15%, what percent is fat? 45%
An antherogenic diet is a diet that increases risk of heart disease. Such a diet can be categorized by all of the following EXCEPT: Low in trans fat
Chylomicrons are lipoproteins. True
Which lipoprotein is primarily made in the liver AND has the greatest amount of triglycerides? VLDL
Diets higher in trans and saturated fats cause a decrease removal of _______, thus leading to higher levels circulating in the blood. LDL
Which lipoprotein actually removes cholesterol from cells and blood vessels? HDL
People should not make efforts to reduce their intakes of food cholesterol very stringently because: Cholesterol containing foods have minimal effect on blood cholesterol in most people AND Cholesterol containing foods are nutritious and should not be eliminated from the diet.
There are no known associations between dietary fat and cancer. False
Protein in the body can be found in: Blood, muscles and bones
Unlike the other macronutrients, proteins also contain __________. Nitrogen
_________ amino acids are not produced by the body and must be obtained from food. Essential
Nonessential amino acids are made in the body by: Modifying essential amino acids.
Genes are segments of DNA that carry instructions to use amino acids to make unique ______. Protein
A protein's function is determined by it's _______. Shape
Polypeptides are amino acids joined together by peptide bonds: these are also called proteins. True
A meal of red beans and rice is an example of supplementaion. True
One of the most important roles of protein in the body if for: Growth
All hormones are made from protein. False
Electrolytes are protein. False
Protein in the blood is able to attract hydrogens and help maintain acid-base balance. True
If Mary weighs 140 pounds and her RDA for protein is 0.8 grams per kilogram body weight, what would be her recommended protein intake? 51 grams
Pepsin is an enzyme in the stomach that begins the breakdown of proteins in to short polypeptide chains and single amino acids. True
Which food would have the highest protein quality? Milk
The RDA for protein for sedentary people is _______ grams per kilogram body weight per day. 0.8
The recommendation protein intake for an endurance athlete is ____ times greater than a non athlete. 1.5-1.75
High protein intake is associated with which of the following? Kidney disease complications, high cholesterol and bone loss.
The only vegetable source of a complete protein is: Soy
Foods that are high in active vitamin A (such as liver) should not be eaten on a daily or weekly basis by children and _________. Pregnant women
Beta-Carotene supplements are recommended since it is difficult to eat enough beta carotene rich foods daily. False
Vegans in the northeast might be at risk for Vitamin D deficiency. True
Which of the following foods would be considered a poor source of dietary Vitamin E? Milk
The main function of Vitamin K is: For blood clotting
All of the following are involved in the release of energy from foods EXCEPT: Beta-Carotene
Vitamin C prevents the common cold. False
Thiamin function include the following EXCEPT: Antioxidant
Riboflavin is involved with all of the follwing EXCEPT: Bone remodeling
Deficiency symptoms of niacin include all of the following EXCEPT: anemia
Which vitamin is involved in protein synthesis? Vitamin B6
_________ is known to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects in the first weeks of pregnancy. Folate
In order to keep blood homocysteine levels down, these 3 vitamins must be present in the diet. Folate, B6 and B12
Which of the following is not a function of choline? Aids in elimination
The stage of cancer where cancerous cells grow out of control and invade surrounding tissues is called ________. Progression
The following are all ways to reduce risk of cancer EXCEPT: Limiting intake of vegetables rich in antioxidants.
Which foods does NOT contain phytochemicals? Chicken
Toxic intake levels of vitamins and minerals are most likely reached by consuming _________. Supplements
Minerals are like all the other nutrients in that they contain carbon. False
The pair of electrolytes responsible for extracellular fluid balance is: Sodium and choloride
Processed foods are lower in sodium than fresh foods. False
Good sources of phosphorus include all of the following EXCEPT: Spinach
Chloride is involved in the below functions EXCEPT: Water sanitizer
________ is the degree which our bodies can absorb and use nutrients. Bioavailability
The mineral responsible for muscle contraction is: Calcium
Functions of sulfur include all of the following EXCEPT: Bone mineralization
Selenium works with vitamin _______ as an antioxidant. E
One of the primary sources of fluoride is tap water. True
Iodine is critical for synthesis of _______ hormones. Thyroid
Neither deficiency nor toxicity of chromium appear to be a concern in the US. True
Which role best describes manganese? Energy metabolism
Which is the most common nutrient deficiency in the world? Iron
Myoglobin is an iron containing protein found in muscle. True
Plant products are the best source of copper in the diet. False
___________ is a disease characterized by low bone mass and deterioration of bone tissue. Osteoperosis
Two thirds of the fluid in the body is known as ______ fluid. Intracellular
All are examples of water acting as a lubricant EXCEPT: Sweat
Fluid needs to depend on all of the following EXCEPT: Socio economic status
Matabolic water makes up ______ of water in our bodies need each day. 10-14%
The primary avenues of fluid excretion are urine, sweat, feces, evaporation and _______. Exhalation
The DRI guidelines from the Institute of Medicine on how much water or fluids adult males should drink each day are approx: 13 cups
________ water is water that has had all dissolved minerals and contaminants removed so it can be useful for research and medical procedures. Purified
Depletion of body fluid that results when water excretion exceeds water intake is called: Dehydration
Fewer than one half of all Americans regularly consume alcohol. True.
Women absorb a high % of alcohol than men. True
Alcohol contain _____ kcals per gram. 7
_______ describes a cluster of severe birth defects including malformation of the face, limbs, heart and nervous system that occurs in a child whose mother abuses alcohol during pregnancy. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
Alcohol related ______ causes anorexia, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, or tenderness, jaundice, and on occasion mental confusion. Hepatitis
Which of the following is not a direct result from physical activity? It decreases HDL
The maximal heart rate for a 30 year old would be: 190 beats per minute
The currency of energy for virtually all cells in the body is ________. ATP
Muscle tissue contains ___ to ____ times as much creatine phosphate as ATP. 4 to 6
When oxygen availability is limited in the cell, pyruvic acid is converted to_______. Lactic Acid
Protein makes up at least 10% of the fuel during physical activity. False
Which nutrient group is necessary for facilitating the release of energy from food to make ATP? B vitamins
Our bodies store glycogen very rapidly during the first 24 hours of recovery from exercise. True
Another term for carbohydrate loading is ______ loading. Glycogen
Heat _____ is due to standing in the heat for too long resulting in blood pooling in lower extremities. Syncope
_______ anemia is not a true anemia but a transient decrease in iron stores that occurs at the start of an exercise. Sports
Sports bars and sports drinks are considered ergogenic acids. True
Which of the following is a compound made from amino acids that is found in the mitochondrial membrane of our cells? carnitine
The health of the father during conception has no impact on the fetus. False
The majority of fetal growth occurs during the ____ trimester. Third
A woman who is normal weight prior to her pregnancy should gain approx. how much weight throughout her pregnancy? 25-35 pounds
__________ is an essential fatty acid important for eye, brain, and nervous system development. DA
Morning sickness can be cured without hurting the fetus. False
All of the following are known teratogens EXCEPT: moderate amounts of caffeine.
The fat content in breast milk changes with the growth of the baby as well as changing with the course of each feeding. True
Breastfeeding woman need as much iron as pregnant women. False
Breastfeeding suppresses ovulation in the mother. True
Fat intake should be around 30% of total kcals during the first 2 years of life. False
Which of the following help deter food allergies from developing in an infant? Waiting until the GI tract is better developed before introducing solid foods.
Cow milk is too high in protein and can cause GI tract distress in babies under the age of 1. True
What is the frequency in which toddlers need to eat: Every 2-3 hours
When a family is not able to provide a predictable food supply this is called food____. Insecurity
Early adolescence is a crucial time for ensuring adequate bone density acquisition. True
Helminths are commonly called: Worms
The disease caused by a parasite with symptoms of diarrhea is called: Giardiasis
A ______ is a chemical produced by a microorganism that harms tissues or causes harmful immune responses. toxin
Many food borne microbes are killed by ______ in the stomach. Hydrochloric acid
The majority of bacteria that cause food borne illnesses grow best in temperatures between: 40 F- 132 F
Recombinant bovine growth hormone is injected into some _______ to induce the animals to grow more muscle and less fat. beef herds
Substances found on the GRAS list are known to be: Safe for human consumption
Which of the following causes headaches and difficulty breathing? MSG
The FDA sets tolerances levels on pesticides before they can be used on foods. False
rBGH is a growth hormone used in the cattle industry in the US and the Europe Union. False
Another term used to describe specific farming methods that improve soil conservation, crop yields, and food security is __________. Sustainable agriculture.
Both Marasmus and Kwashiorkor are diseases of overnutrition. False.
Which eating behavior is associated with wasting fossil fuels? Eating fast food
Created by: nguillermo