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WVSOM - Virus(1)

B19 Parvovirus; Papillomaviruses

QuestionAnswer
List 5 diseases associated with B19 parvovirus Erythema infectiosum, fetal hydrops fetalis, transient aplastic crisis (TAC), arthralgia / arthritis, virus-associated hemophagocytic syndrome
Erythema infectiosum is also known as ... Fifth's disease
What are 2 types of characteristic rashes associated with erythema infectiosum? "slapped cheek disease" and "gloves and socks" syndrome
How does B19 parvovirus spread? Via respiratory droplets, blood; common infection
What age group is most prevalent for B19 parvovirus? 6-15 year olds; 70%
Incidence rate for B19 parvovirus Seasonal; late winter -> early spring; epidemics every 3-4 years
What % of women are immune to B19 parvovirus at time of conception (pregnancy)? 50%
What value accounts for vertical transmission of B19 parvovirus of primary maternal infections? 1/4
What is the initial site of infection for B19 parvovirus? Upper respiratory tract
What is the target of B19 parvovirus? Proerythroblast (in bone marrow)
What receptor on the proerythroblast is targeted by B19 parvovirus? p-antigen
Outline the pathogenesis of B19 parvovirus Virus goes from bone marrow -> bloodstream -> circulating RBC has antigen (p-Ag) but no nucleus -> virus binds (no replication) -> forms immune complexes that deposit along capillary wall, joints = rash & joint problems
Progression of symptoms for erythema infectiosum Fever (viremia, low reticulocytes) -> rash & arthalgia (leukocytes, IgG, IgM)
"gloves and socks" syndrome Bone marrow not invaded; fever & rash at same time; isolated to hands & feet; infects capillaries; mainly adults
Non-immune hydrops fetalis Very low incidence; during pregnancy; vertical transmission; greatest suscpetibility = 11-23 wks gestation; fatality rate = 50%
Complications of non-immune hydrops fetalis Severe anemia, cardiac failure (edema); death; spontaneous abortion; stillbirth; congenital anemia
Treatment for non-immune hydrops fetalis Fetal transfusion; IVIG
Who are mostly affected by transient aplastic crisis (TAC)? Patients with sickle cell disease, hemolytic anemias, iron deficiency, alpha- & beta-thalassemias, RBC deficiencies
How is TAC treated? Transfusion
How is TAC resolved? Following immune elimination
How is B19 parvovirus diagnosed? Clinical symptoms (characteristic rash); IgM ELISA; PCR (during fever, TAC); bone marrow pathology (aplastic crisis)
What do papilloma viruses cause? Benign tumors (warts)
Papilloma virus is responsible for 95% of this type of cancer Malignant cervical carcinoma (also vulvar, vaginal, penile, anal carcinomas)
What is the most common STD? HPV (human papilloma virus)
Papilloma virus is a subgroup of which viruses? Papovaviruses
Besides papilloma virus, what other virus is classified under papovaviruses? Polyoma
Polyoma affects what population? Lower animal groups
What 3 viruses are part of the polyoma virus group? SV40 (tumor virus); BK (affects kidneys); JC (encephalomyelitis)
Features of papilloma virus Circular ds DNA; host histones; overlapping genes; disrupts p53 / Rb
What gene product of the papilloma virus is responsible for blocking p53? E6 gene
What gene product of the papilloma virus is responsible for blocking Rb? E7 gene
What are the major types of dry skin warts caused by papilloma virus? Common warts, flat warts, plantar warts (worst type), bowenoid (pigmented, edges of genitals), EV (seen in immunocompromised)
Which 4 subtypes of papilloma virus are associated with sexual transmission and are part of the Gardisil vaccine? 6, 11, 16, 18
What cell layer does the papilloma virus infect? Basal cell layer
Does the basal cell layer allow for viral replication? NO
At what layer is the papilloma virus fully expressed? Prickle cell layer
Warts are mostly comprised of what protein? Keratin
What histological structure is used to diagnose cervical dysplasia? Koliocytes (viral replication taking place)
What is the incubation period of papilloma viruses? 3 months - several years
Who are mostly affected by papilloma viruses? Children
How are papilloma viruses transferred? Direct / indirect contact
How are papilloma viruses diagnosed? Via observation; enhanced by acetic acid (turns warts white); PCR; pap smear (genital warts, cervical dysplasia)
How are papilloma viruses treated? Chemically, surgically, laser, freezing; typically spontaneous regression; vaccine (Gardisil - 6/11, 16/18)
Created by: JaneO