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WVSOM - Mycoses

Superficial, Cutaneous, & Subcutaneous Mycoses

QuestionAnswer
Superficial fungal infection that causes pityriasis versicolor Malassezia furfur
Tinea nigra (superificial infection) is caused by? Exophiala (or Hortae) werneckii
The cause of black / white piedra (superficial infection) Piedraia hortae, Trichosporon beigelli
Tineas (dermatophytoses) are __________ infections Cutaneous
What fungal species cause tineas? Trichophyton, Epidermophyton, Microsporum sp. and Candida sp.
What infection (superificial, cutaneous, subcutaneous) is the most common? Cutaneous
What infection (superficial, cutaneous, subcutaneous) is the most serious? Subcutaneous
What causes subcutaneous chromoblastomycosis? Fonsecaea, Cladosporium, Phialophora sp.
Sporotrichosis (subcutaneous infection) is caused by __________ __________ Sporothrix schenckii
Pseudoallescheria, Madurella sp. cause _________ Mycetoma (subcutaneous infection)
Malassezia furfur is considered (normal / abnormal) flora on many people Normal
Pityriasis versicolor infects what layer of skin? Stratum corneum; results in scaly lesions
Inflammatory response with pityriasis versicolor? NO
Pityriasis versicolor is a __________ yeast Lipophilic; requires sweat, sebum for moisture and nutrition
Why does pityriasis versicolor cause depigmentation at site of growth? Blocks UV light from penetrating
"spaghetti and meatballs" Diagnostic pattern for pityriasis versicolor; initially grows as yeast (close to skin), but converts to mycelial growth further from skin (dec. in temp.)
Other consequences of Malassezia overgrowth Cradle cap (overproduction of sebum + Malassezia) and dandruff (overaccumulation of sebum + Malassezia) = seborrheic dermatitis
Presentation of superficial tinea nigra Brown / black macular lesions on hands / feet (resemble melanoma), non-scaling
Tinea nigra has what type of inflammatory response? NONE
Exophiala (Hortae, Phaeoallennomyces) werneckii Brown-black pigmented yeast, found in soil, shower curtains (not normal flora)
Tinea nigra treatment Salicylic acid, benzoic acid
Pityriasis versicolor treatment Itraconazole / ketoconazole, selenium suflide (Selsun Blue), pyrithione zinc (Head and Shoulders)
Infection of the external hair shaft Black piedra, white piedra (superficial fungal infection)
Black nodules (external hair shaft infection) Piedra hortae
White nodules (external hair shaft infection) Trichosporon beigelli
Black piedra, white piedra treatment Shave hair, antifungal shampoos
Cutaneous fungal infections are classified based on __________ Location
Cutaneous fungal infections metabolize _________ Keratin
Will cutaneous fungal infections induce an immune response? YES
Tinea corporis (cutaneous infection) Ringworm of trunk, legs; caused by Trichophyton, Microsporum sp.
Tinea imbricata (cutaneous infection) Concentric rings of scales over trunk, legs, forearms; caused by Trichophyton sp.
Tinea pedis - athlete's foot (cutaneous infection) Scaling btw toes, lateral side of foot; itching, skin cracks; caused by Trichophyton, Epidermophyton sp.
Most common cutaneous infection Tinea pedis
Tinea cruris - jock itch (cutaneous infection) Rash, scaling, inner thighs; caused by Trichophyton, Epidermophyton sp.
Tinea capitis - scalp ringworm, favus (cutaneous infection) Disease of children
Ectothrix Tinea capitis; conidia outside of hair shaft
Endothrix Tinea capitis; conidia inside of hair shaft
Tinea capitis presentation Hair loss, scaling, inflammation of the scalp skin, itching; confused with dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis
Cause of tinea capitis Trichophyton, Microsporum sp.
Tinea barbae (cutaneous infection) Infection of hair and skin around bearded area of neck and face; caused by Trichophyton sp.
Tinea unquium - onychomycosis (cutaneous infection) Infection of nails; causes thickening, fissuring, colorization (brown, white, yellow); caused by Trichophyton, Candida sp.
Treatment of tina unquium Topical / oral azoles, tolnaftate, terbinafine, griseofulvin (drug of last choice, oldest treatment)
"Copper penny spores" Subcutaneous fungal infection - chromoblastomycosis
What is a requirement for subcutaneous fungal infections? Implantation
Wart-like, cauliflower, pigmented lesion (usually on foot) Chromoblastomycosis (subcutaneous fungal infection)
Cause of chromoblastomycosis Fonsecaea, Cladosporium, Phialophora sp.
Treatment of chromoblastomycosis Surgery, itraconazole
Clinicla presenation of subcutaneous fungal infections May take weeks - months - years for infection to develop
What causes sporotrichosis (subcutaneous infection)? Sporothrix schenckii
Sporotrichosis - rose thorn disease (subcutaneous infection) Ulcerative papule, spreads via drainin lymph channels, nodular granulomas, chronic
Treatment for sporotrichosis Oral potassium iodide, itraconazole, amphotericin B
Asteroid body Characteristic of sporotrichosis; fungus implants in subcutaneous tissue, yeast buds (buds cannot move freely through tissue), create "asteroid"
Cause of mycetoma - madura foot (subcutaneous infection) Pseudoallescheria, Madurella sp.
Mycetoma treatment Poor response to antifungals, surgery, amputation
How does mycetoma spread? Sinus tract formation; leads to deeper tissue infiltration
Can mycetoma destroy bone? YES (over time - months / years)
Clinical presentation of mycetoma Small, painless nodules and papules
How does one acquire mycetoma? Infection via thorns or splinters
Created by: JaneO