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Medical Ethics

Unit 1

Four Branches of Philosophy Metaphysics, Epistemology, Axiology, Logic.
Metaphysics What is Reality? Cosmology-Universe. Ontology-nature of being...Who are we? Theology-nature of God.
Epistemology What knowledge can we trust? The nature of knowledge. God=revelation.
Axiology Nature of Values. What do we believe in strongly enough to act on? ACTing on beliefs. Consistent with metaphysics. Ethics=morality. Aesthetics=beauty.
Logic Correct reasoning. What methods of thinking yield correct results?
Schools of Thought Idealism, Realism, Pragmatism, Existentialism.
Idealism-Metaphysics (lofty) Reality in ideas-mind. Absolute-external source. Immaterialism-reality is not matter. Reality is ideals. Know through the mind. Ascetic-deny body. Individual centered-ideas. Free will-law is guarantor of freedom. Monism-only ideals. Plato, Socrates.
Idealism-Epistemology Rationalism, Authority, Revelation. Can only know reality via the mind. Senses obstruct knowing.
Idealism-Axiology Values are absolute. Usually come from God. Strong sense of right & wrong.
Idealism-Logic Formal, deductive. Whole to part.
Realism-Metaphysics (grounded) Reality is in ideas + the physical world. Absolute-fixed. Physical world is real. Content centered, laws of nature, knowledge, skills. Knowledge of physical world=main emphasis. Determinism, Fatalism. Dualism-form and matter are real. Aristotle.
Realism-Epistemology Empiricism. Facts are first. Ideas are based on facts-observable, measurable, objective.
Realism-Axiology Values are absolute. Come from science, man, God. Objective.
Realism-Logic Formal, inductive. Part to whole, scientific.
Pragmatism-Metaphysics-Practical. Reality is change. Typically agnostic. Societal norms. Reality in experience + change. Relative & flexible-I create truth. Holistic ideas & feelings. Individual w/ concern for social well-being of others. Free will-do what you want but dont harm others. Pluralism-social centered, as many realities as people.
Pragmatism-Epistemology Empiricism, Intuitionism. Experience is the best teacher. Scientific knowledge also valued.
Pragmatism-Axiology Values are relative. Come from experience, others, society. Change with times.
Pragmatism-Logic Common sense reasoning. Good or ever changing. Not bound by strict method or tradition.
Existentialism-Metaphysics. Pessimistic. Antisociety. No previous life or meaning. Reality in each self, I. Relative & flexible. Body focused-physicalism-pleasure seeking-hedonism. Feelings, passionate life, egocentric, pessimistic. Free Will-dreadful freedom. Pluralism-Ego centered. I am my body.
Existentialism-Epistemology Feelings. One knows by feeling, life drama-not via someone else or some method.
Existentialism-Axiology Values are relative. Come from me. Subjective.
Existentialism-Logic I oriented approach. Abhorrence of method, system.
Absolute Perspective Metaphysical perspective whose source is ultimate. Reality external to self. Constant, fixed, stable. Knowledge from an external source-authority. What's right for one is right for all. Doesn't have to be true. LDS-Heavenly Father.
Relative Perspective Metaphysical perspective whose source of ultimate reality is one's self. Reality is changing, based on experience. You are the source and author of reality.
Football movie Idealism-"God given" leadership. Individual centered. Lofty.
Eclectic Don't follow any one philosophy but select beliefs from many schools of though and creates own. Relative.
Atheism The belief that no deity exists.
Agnostic The belief that knowledge of deity is impossible, can't be known.
Deduction The method of reasoning which involves drawing inferences from the general to the specific. Absolute.
Induction The method of reasoning which involves drawing inferences from the specific to the general.
Epistemology The branch of philosophy which deals with the nature of and acquisition of knowledge.
Metaphysics The branch of philosophy which considers theories about the nature of ultimate reality.
Philosophy The love or seeking of wisdom.
Axiology The branch of philosophy which studies the nature of values.
The four branches that constitute the study of philosophy. Metaphysics, Epistemology, Axiology, Logic.
Existentialism The "youngest" of the four schools of thought.
Monism In metaphysics, the theory that reality is quantitatively one single entity. Ex. the Trinity-ultimate reality must be one thing.
Speculation The mode of philosophizing that concentrates on finding the whole, the comprehensive picture or meaning.
Humanism The belief that man is the highest order of reality.
Optimism The belief that existence is good & life is worth living.
Aesthetics Study of beauty and ugliness, art values & principles.
Pantheism God & the universe are one and the same thing.
Rational Knowledge gained by reasoning using only the mind.
Revelation The kind of knowledge that comes from God.
Objective Values that exist in their own right regardless of human preference.
Empirical Knowledge that is confirmed by the senses, observable.
Intuition The kind of knowledge that a person finds originating from within, in a moment of insight.
Ethics The sub branch of axiology that deals with moral conduct.
Asceticism The belief that physical self-torture or self-denial could discipline an individual to achieve spiritual competence.
Hedonism The "ism" or belief that pleasure is the highest good.
Determinism A belief that individual behavior and natural events are predetermined, hence, no one is able to choose. No agency.
Immaterialism The belief that something exists which is not material, e.g. spirit.
Materialism The belief that the thing which exists is material, matter.
Absolute Truth-Spencer W. Kimball The commandments are not suggestions. Today there is a move to relativism & a "dont get caught" attitude. Dare to stand alone. We discover, but do not create truth. A letter to an unbeliever.
Things That Change and Things That Don't-Rex E. Lee Those that say there are no absolutes are dead wrong. We must give up the pride of our intellect. Bible scholars decided that Christ did not do the things he is said to have done. Build your house on things that do not change.
Korihor-Chauncey C. Riddle Korihor took a philosophical approach to destroying faith in the Savior. Naturalistic empiricism. Humanism. Relativism. Righteousness & self-righteousness clarified.
Free Agency and Freedom-Dallin H. Oaks Realism-determinsim. No choice. Victim mentality, fatalistic. You deny agency when you blame others. Agency is God given choice. Absolute. Freedom is action. In our hands. Satan: something for nothing scam. Idealism: more you live the law, the more free.
Freedom and Fulfillment-Truman G. Madsen God will not exert compulsory means. The devil cannot. Indeterminism: we can upset the causal chain. Law is the guarantor of freedom. "it is apparently more bearable to believe the future is fixed than depends on us." We can approach God.
Agency-A Blessing and a Burden-Sharon G. Larsen The Savior is the only person who knows the full extent of temptation because he is the only one who fully resisted. We want freedom without consequences. Our work is to increase faith. Absolutes from God show his love for us.
Addictions We know is harmful but do anyway. Feel we need to lie about. Spirit takes body out of harmony with eternal truths. Exercse becomes an addiction if it goes beyond the point of enhancement & becomes a necessity. A "fix" you can't function w/o.
Personality Traits of Exercise Addicts Introverted. Unable to express anger. High achievers. Upper-middle socioeconomic class. Self-disciplined. Type A personality.
Common Behaviors of Exercise Addicts Require daily exercise to cope. Believe that they can't live w/o daily exercise. Manifests withdrawal symptoms w/o exercise. Continues exercise even if detrimental medically, socially, vocationally. Put aside normal life.
Running, aerobics Activities in which prevalence of exercise addiction is found. Tendency to add to the mileage one is doing to maintain the high. Closely tied to eating problems. Often unaware there is a problem. Denial, compulsive behavior, exercise is a necessity.
Anorexic Teens Many teens w/ eating problems come from homes with authoritarian parents-try to control, in a negative way, the behaviors of the son or daughter.
Assistance for one with eating problems Respond with concern. Listen with empathy. Recommend professional help.
According to the Desire of Our Hearts Our desires affect the use of our moral agency and individuality. We will eventually receive in eternity that which we consistently desire.
Offset Addictions Via the Holy Ghost Seek to be guided. Use agency to obey. Never give up. There is a way out, and the holy ghost changes lives.
Created by: punkaloo