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SPHSC 100B exam 2

Prosody Suprasegmental aspects of language that convey meaning and mood, such as rate, intonation and stress. Melody of speech. Vocal expressiveness.
Components of Prosody Rate, Pausing, Stress, Intonation, Inflection
What is stress? "Accent by loudness" Change in: Loudness (usually louder), Pitch (usually higher), Duration (usually longer)
What is intonation? The total pattern of pitch changes that are superimposed over an utterance. Can be used to add meaning, to clarify, or reinforce what you say. The melody of a language which adds to the message.
Intonation There are specific intonation patterns that most people follow when speaking. "I am going to the store" (Declarative) "Am I going to the store?" (Interrogative-Yes-No Questions)
What is Inflection? Changes in pitch that occur within words as you speak. Pitch "glides" or "slides" that are done very smoothly. "Word intonation"
What is a normal voice? A normal voice is judged according to whether the pitch, loudness, and quality are adequate for communication and suit a particular person. Involves three subsystems: Respiration, Phonation, and Resonance.
What is a voice disorder? Voice is a problem when the pitch, loudness, or quality calls attention to itself rather than to what the speaker is saying. It is also a problem if the speaker is experiencing pain or discomfort when speaking or singing.
Types of Voice Disorder (Organic) Physical difference or damage to the voice mechanism caused by disease or trauma, "organic lesion/damage" (ie surgical, environmental, physical) Unrelated to the way voice has been used.
Functional Misuse of the voice or phonotraumatic behavior/event
Organic Lesions we discussed Vocal nodules, Laryngopharyngeal Reflux (LPR), Cleft palate, contact ulcers/granulomas, laryngeal cancer, muscle tension dysphonia, vocal nodules, Reinke's edema.
Muscle Tension Dysphonia Strained vocal tract
Vocal Nodules Calluses of the VFs due to misuse
Reflux Laryngitis Irritation of the VFs due to acid reflux
Contact Ulcers/Granulomas Ulcers (sores) that can lead to tissue growths
Reinke's Edema Swelling of the VFs
Laryngeal Cancer Carcinoma (tumor) in the larynx.
Cleft Palate Absence of hard and/or soft palate
Speech: Verbal means of communicating Speech sounds, fluency (rhythm of speech), voice (using VFs and breathing to produce speech sounds)
Language: Socially shared rules (Symbolic; meaningful) Word meanings, how to make different words (friend vs. friendly), putting words together (syntax).
Speech Disorder Inability to produce sounds correctly or fluently.
Language Disorder Trouble understand others (receptive language disorder). Trouble expressing ideas, thoughts, and feelings (expressive language disorder).
Apraxia of Speech Motor speech disorder. Caused by neurological damage. Severity depends on nature of brain damage.
Apraxia of Speech continues... Linguistic expression is in tact, difficulty with muscle movement coordination, make frequent tries and re-adjustments.
Aphasia Disorder of language. Neurological damage. Understanding and expression of language impaired. May co-occur with AOS. Two broad types: fluent and non fluent.
Fluent (Wernicke's) Aphasia Left temporal lobe damage. Signs/symptoms: long sentences, no meaning, addition of unnecessary words/non words, difficulty understanding speech, unawareness of errors
Non fluent (Broca's) Aphasia Damage to frontal lobe of brain, speak in short phrases, omission of function words, usually fairly good language comprehension, often aware of their difficulties.
Dysarthria Motor speech disorder, results from neurologic injury, characterized by poor articulation, a disorder of muscle weakness.
Three Respiration Types Determined by which structures move the most when you breathe. Abdominal (diaphragmatic), Thoracic (chest cavity), Clavicular (collar bone).
Which is the best type? Abdominal is the most efficient (the most air for the least work) and effective (producing and sustaining loud, clear tones)
Created by: c13luong