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Terms for Digestive

Med Tech I

Alimentary canal A long, muscular tube that begins at the mouth and includes the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestines, large intestines and anus.
Anus External opening of the anal canal or rectum.
Appendectomy The surgical removal of the appendix.
Appendicitis The inflammation of the appendix, usually resulting from an obstruction and infection.
Ascending colon THe second section of the large intestines that is on the right side of the body from the cecum to the lower part of the liver.
Bile A substance that is secreated by the liver and stored in the gallbladder that is needed to emulsify fat in the digestive tract.
Bolus Food that hasbeen chewed and mixed with saliva.
Bowel The intestines.
Cardiac Sphincter A circular muscle between the esophagus and the stomach that closes after food enters the stomach to prevent food from going back into the esophagus.
Cecum The first section of the large intestine and is connected to the ileum of the small intestines.
Cholecystectomy Surgical removal of the gallbladder.
Cholethiasis Stones found in the gallbladder.
Cirrhosis A chronic destruction of liver cells accompanied by the formation of fiberous connective and scar tissue
Colitis Inflamation of the colon.
Colon Also known as large intestines.
Colostomy A surgical opening into the colon.
Common bile duct Used by the body to carry bile from the gallbladder into the duodenum.
Constipation When fecal material remains in the colon too long, causing excessive reabsorption of water.
Crohn's disease A chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown origin, usually affecting the ileum, the colon, or another part of the GI tract.
Defecate To have a bowel movement or pass feces from the body.
Descending colon Part of the colon that extends down the left side of the body.
Diarrhea A condition characterized by frequent watery stools.
Digestion Physical and chemical breakdown of food by the body in preparation for absorption.
Diverticulitis An inflammation of the diverticula which are puches or sacs that form in the intestine as the mucosal lining pushes through the surrounding muscle.
Duodenum Is the first 9 to 10 inches of the small intestines.
Esophagus The muscular tube dorsal (behind)to the trachea.
Flatus Gas created in the intestines.
Gallbladder A small, muscular sac located under the liver and attached to it by connective tissue.
Gastric Pertaining to the stomach.
Gastrointestional Pertaining to the organs of the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to anus.
Gastroscopy The visual inspection of the interior of the stomach by means of a gastroscope inserted through the esophagus.
Hemorrhoidectomy The surgical removal of a hemorrhoid.
Hemorrhoids A varicose vein found in the rectum or anus.
Hepatitis Inflammation of the liver.
Hernia Occurs when an internal organ pushes through a weakened area or natural opening in a body wall.
Herniorrhaphy The surgical repair of a hernia.
Hiatus Pertains to a herniation of the stomach through an opening
Ileocecal The valve between the ileum of the samll intestines and the cecum of the large intestines.
Ileostomy Surgical opening of the ileum onto the abdominal wall for evacuation of feces.
Ileum Last section of the small intestines.
Impaction A collection of hardened feces in the rectum that cannot be expelled.
Insulin A hormone secreated by the Islets of Langerhans in the pancreas that control the use of glucose in the body.
Jaundice A yellowish discoloration of the sclera and skin due to the prescence of bile pigments in the blood.
Jejunum The middle segment of the small intestines which is approximately 8 feet in length.
Liver The largest gland in the body and is located in the upper right quadrant of the abdomen beneath the diaphragm.
Mesentery A peritoneal fold connecting the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall.
Mouth The oral cavity.
Nausea An unpleasant sensation with the tendency to vomit.
Pancreas An organ which secretes insulin and pancreatic enzymes for digestion.
Paralytic ileus Paralysis if the intestional wall with symptoms of acute obstruction.
Peptic Pertaining to digestion; can also refer to an ulcer of the upper digestive tract.
Peristalsis A progressive, wave-like muscular movement which occurs involuntary in the urinary and digestive tracts.
Polyp A small tumor like growth that protrudes from a mucous membrane surface.
Proctoscope An instrument for the inspection of the rectum.
Pruritus ani Itching about the anus.
Pyloric Pertaining to the opening between the stomach and the duodenum.
Rectum The lower part of the large intestines between the sigmoid colon and the anal canal.
Reflux An abnormal backward or return flow of a fuid.
Saliva A digestive secration of the salivary glands which helps to moisten food and begin the digestive process.
Salivary glands Three pairs of glands that secreate the saliva which moistens food and begins the digestive process.
Sigmoid colon A "S" shaped section of the large intestines between the descending colon and the rectum.
Sigmoidoscopy An insertion of the sigmoid with an instrument for visual inspection.
Spastic colon Spasmotic contractions of the large intestines.
Stomach The food reservoir and first major site of digestion, located under the diaphragm.
Stool Bowel movement; feces.
Tongue The muscular organ ofd the mouth which assists in the production of speech, contains the taste buds, and provides the ability to swallow.
Transverse colon The segment of the large instestines which lies across the abdomen.
Created by: sandra.whiteside