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FS HN 167-Test One

QuestionAnswer
Experimental Group the group of participants who undergo the treatment being tested
Control Group the group of participants used as the basis of comparison. They are similar to the participants in the experimental group but do not receive the treatment being tested
Epidemiology the branch of science that studies health and disease trends and patterns in populations
Structure/Function Claims claims on food labels that describe the role of a nutrient or dietary ingredient in maintaining normal structure or function in humans
Qualified Health Claims health claims on food labels that have been approved based on emerging but not well-established evidence of a relationship between a food, food component, or dietary supplement and reduced risk of disease or health-related condition
Nutrient Content Claims claims on food labels used to describe the level of a nutrient in a food. The Nutrition Labeling Act of 1990 defines the terms and regulates the circumstances under which they can be used
Discretionary Calories the calories remaining after an individual has met recommended intake levels with healthy choices from all of the food groups
Nutrition Facts the portion of a food label that provides information about the nutritional composition of a food and how that food fits into the overall diet
Estimated Energy Requirements (EERs) average energy intake values predicted to maintain body weight in healthy individuals
Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 a set of nutrition recommendations designed to promote population-wide dietary changes to reduce the incidence of nutrition-related chronic disease
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) a set of four reference values for the intake of nutrients and food components that can be used for planning and assessing the diets of healthy people in the United States and Canada
Nutritional Status an individual's health, as it is influenced by the intake and utilization of nutrients
Food Guides food group systems that suggest amounts of different types of foods needed to meet nutrient intake recommendations
Supplement Facts portion of a dietary supplement label that includes information about, serving size, ingredients, amount per serving size, and percent of Daily Value, if established
Health Claims claims on food labels that describe the relationship between a nutrient or food and a disease or health condition. Only approved health claims may appear on food labels
Exchange Lists a system of grouping foods based on their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and energy content
Daily Value a reference value for the intake of nutrients used on food labels to help consumers see how a given food fits into their overall diet
Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Ranges (AMDRs) healthy ranges of intake for carbohydrate, fat, and protein, expressed as percentages of total energy intake
MyPyramid: Steps to a Healthier You a food group system developed by the USDA as a guide to the amounts of different types of foods needed to provide an adequate diet and comply with current nutrition recommendations
Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) intakes that are sufficient to meet the needs of almost all healthy people in a specific gender and life-stage group
Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (ULs) maximum daily intake levels that are unlikely to pose risks of adverse health effects to almost all individuals in a given gender and life-stage group
Healthy People a set of national health promotion and disease prevent objectives for the U.S. population
Adequate Intakes (AIs) nutrient intakes that should be used as a goal when no RDA exists. AI values are an approximation of the nutrient intake that sustains health
Molecules units of two or more atoms of the same or different elements bonded together
Cells the basic structural and functional units of living things
Organs discrete structures composed of more than one tissue that perform a specialized function
Hormones chemical messengers that are produced in one location in the body, released into the blood, and travel to other locations, where they elicit responses
Digestion the process by which food is broken down into components small enough to be absorbed into the body
Absorption the process of taking substances from the gastrointestinal tract into the interior of the body
Feces body waster, including unabsorbed food residue, bacteria, mucus, and dead cells, which is eliminated from the gastrointestinal tract by way of the anus
Mucus a viscous fluid secreted by glands in the digestive tract and other parts of the body. It lubricates, moistens, and protects cells from harsh environments
Enzymes protein molecules that accelerate the rate of specific chemical reactions without themselves being changed
Saliva a watery fluid that is produced and secreted into the mouth by salivary glands. It contains lubricants, enzymes, and other substances
Peristalsis coordinated muscular contractions that move material through the GI tract
Bile a digestive fluid made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder that is released into the small intestine, where it aids in fat digestion and absorption
Simple Diffusion the unassisted diffusion of a substance across the cell membrane
Elements substances that cannot be broken down into products with different properties
Amino Acids the building blocks of proteins. Each contains an amino group, an acid group, and a unique side chain
Minerals elements needed by the body in small amounts to maintain structure and regulate chemical reactions and body processes
Kilocalories units of heat that are used to express the amount of energy provided by food. It is the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of water to 1C (1 kcal=1000 cal)
Under Nutrition poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake below that which meets nutritional needs
Over Nutrition poor nutritional status resulting from a dietary intake in excess of that which is optimal for health
Zoochemicals substances found in animal foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health-promoting properties
Neutraceuticals foods or supplements thought to have health benefits in addition to their nutritive value
Nutrient Density a measure of the nutrients provided by a food relative to its calorie content
Calorie a unit of measure used to express the amount of energy provided by food
Essential Nutrients nutrients that a person must consume in order to maintain health
Nutrients substances in food that provide energy and structure to the body and regulate body processes
Carbohydrates a class of nutrients that includes sugars, starches, and fibers. Chemically, they all contain carbon, along with hydrogen and oxygen, in the same proportions
Fiber a type of carbohydrate that cannot be digested by humans
Lipids a class of nutrients that is commonly called fats. Chemically, they contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, and most do not dissolve in water
Phytochemicals substances found in plant foods that are not essential nutrients but may have health promoting properties
Dietary Supplements products sold to supplement the diet; may include nutrients, enzymes, herbs, or other substances
Fortified Foods foods to which one or more nutrients have been added
Organic Compounds substances that contain carbon bonded by hydrogen
Functional Foods foods that have health-promoting and or disease-preventing properties beyond basic nutritional functions
Protein a class of nutrients that includes molecules made up of one or more intertwining chains of amino acids. They contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
Unsaturated Fats lipids that are most abundant in plant oils and are associated with a reduced risk of heart disease
Saturated Fats lipids that are most abundant in solid animal fats and are associated with an increased risk of heart disease
Nutrigenomics the study of how diet affects our genes and how individual genetic variation can affect the impact of nutrients or other food components on health
Genes units of larger molecule called DNA that are responsible for inherited traits
Malnutrition a condition resulting from an energy or nutrient intake either above or below that which is optimal
Placebo a fake medicine or supplement that is indistinguishable in appearance from the real thing. It is used to disguise the control and experimental groups in an experiment
Macronutrients nutrients needed by the body in large amounts. These include water and energy-yielding nutrients; carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
Micronutrients nutrients needed by the body in small amounts. These include vitamins and minerals
Vitamins organic compounds needed in the diet in small amounts to promote and regulate the chemical reactions and processes needed for growth
Energy-Yielding Nutrients nutrients that can be metabolized to produce energy in the body. They include carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Hormones chemical messengers that are produced in one location in the body, released into the blood, and travel to other locations, where they elicit responses
Osteoporosis a bone disorder characterized by reduced bone mass, increased bone fragility, and increased risk of fractures
Atoms the smallest units of an element that retain the properties of the element
Cholesterol a sterol, produced by the liver and consumed in the diet, that is needed to build cell membranes and make hormones and other essential molecules. High blood levels increase the risk of heart disease
Scientific Method the general approach of science that is used to explain observations about the world around us
Hypothesis a proposed explanation for an observation or a scientific problem that can be tested through experimentation
Theories a formal explanation of an observed phenomenon made after a hypothesis has been supported and tested through experimentation
Variable a factor or condition that is changed in an experimental setting
Peer-Review Process the review of the design and validity of a research experiment by experts in the field of study who did not participate in the research
Estimated Average Requirements (EARs) nutrient intakes estimated to meet the needs of 50% of the healthy individuals in a given gender and life-stage group
Tissues a collection of similar cells that together carry out a specific function
Fatty Acids molecules made up of a chain of carbons linked to hydrogens, with an acid group at one end of the chain
Gastrointestinal Tract (GI Tract) a hollow tube consisting of the mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine in which digestion of food and absorption of nutrients occur; also called the alimentary canal, GI tract, or digestive tract
Lumen the inside cavity of a tube, such as the GI tract
Mucosal Cells a type of epithelial cells that make up the lining of the GI tract and other body cavities
Mucosa the layer of tissue lining the GI tract and other body cavities
Transit Time the time between the ingestion of food and the elimination of the solid waster from that food
Salivary Amylase an enzyme secreted by the salivary glands that breaks down starch into smaller units
Pharynx a funnel-shaped opening that connects the nasal passages and mouth to the respiratory passages and esophagus. It is a common passageway for food and air and is responsible for swallowing
Bolus a ball of chewed food mixed with saliva
Epiglottis a piece of elastic connective tissue that covers the opening to the lungs during swallowing
Sphincter a muscular valve that helps control the flow of materials in the GI tract
Chyme a mixture of partially digested food and stomach secretions
Gastric Juice a substance produced by the gastric glands of the stomach that contains an inactive form of pepsin and hydrochloric acid
Pepsin a protein-digesting enzyme produced by the stomach. It is secreted in the gastric juice in an inactive form (pepsinogen) and activated by acid in the stomach
Pancreatic Juice the secretion of the pancreas containing bicarbonate to neutralize acid and enzymes for the digestion of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins
Bicarbonate
Pancreatic Amylase
Proteases
Antigen
Lipases
Phagocytes
Diffusion
Osmosis
Facilitated Diffusion
Active Transport
Intestinal Microflora
Lymphocytes
Antibodies
Allergen
Food Allergies
Heartburn
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
Peptic Ulcers
Gall Stones
Diarrhea
Constipation
Cardiovascular System
Capillaries
Lacteals
Lymphatic System
Veins
Arteries
Arterioles
Venules
Hepatic Portal Vein
Metabolism
Metabolic Pathways
Mitochondria
Cellular Respiration
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
Created by: kmhyden