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Delirium An acute organic brain syndrome secondary to physical causes in which consciousness is affected and disorientation results often associated with illusions, visual hallucinations and persecutory ideation.
Delusion An incorrect belief which is out of keeping with the person's cultural context, intelligence and social background and which is held with unshakeable conviction.
Delusional mood Also known as wahnstimmung, a feeling that something unusual is about to happen of special significance for that person.
Delusional perception A normal perception which has become highly invested with significance and which has become incorporated into a delusional system, e.g. 'when I saw the traffic lights turn red I knew that the dog I was walking was a Nazi and a lesbian Nazi at that'.
Dementia An chronic organic mental illness which produces a global deterioration in cognitive abilities and which usually runs a deteriorating course.
Depersonalisation An experience where the self is felt to be unreal, detached from reality or different in some way. Depersonalisation can be triggered by tiredness, dissociative episodes or partial epileptic seizures.
Depression An affective disorder characterised by a profound and persistent sadness.
Derealisation An experience where the person perceives the world around them to be unreal. The experience is linked to depersonalisation.
Addiction An organism's psychological or physical dependence on a drug, characterised by tolerance and withdrawal.
Adjustment disorder A pathological psychological reaction to trauma, loss or severe stress. Usually these last less than six months, but may be prolonged if the stressor e.g. pain or scarring is enduring.
Affect A person's affect is their immediate emotional state which the person can recognise subjectively and which can also be recognised objectively by others. A person's mood is their predominant current affect.
Agnosia An inability to organise sensory information so as to recognise objects (e.g. visual agnosia) or sometimes even parts of the body, (e.g. hemisomatoagnosia).
Agoraphobia Fear of the marketplace literally; taken now to be a fear of public of public places associated with panic disorder.
Akathisia An inner feeling of excessive restlessness which provokes the sufferer to fidget in their seat or pace about.
Amnesia Anterograde amnesia Retrograde amnesia A partial of complete loss of memory. A loss of memory subsequent to any cause e.g. brain trauma. A loss of memory for a period of time prior to any cause.
Anorexia nervosa Characterised by excess control- morbid fear of obesity. Person will try to limit/reduce wt by excessive dieting, exercising, vomiting, purging and use of diuretics. Typically more than 15% below avg wt for their height/sex/age. F=amenorrhoea M=low libido
Anxiety Anxiety is provoked by fear or apprehension and also results from a tension caused by conflicting ideas or motivations. Anxiety manifests through mental and somatic symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, hyperventilation, and faintness.
Bulimia nervosa Russell in 1979= eating disorder characterised by lack of control. Assoc. w/ guilt, depression & low self esteem (childhood sexual abuse, alcoholism, promiscuity) May be asoc with oesophageal ulceration and parotid swelling (Green's chubby chops sign).
Compulsion Compulsion is the behavioural component of an obsession. Indiv compelled to repeat a behaviour which has no immediate benefit beyond reducing the anxiety associated with the obsessional idea.
Confabulation Changing, loosely held and false memories created to fill in organically-derived amnesia
Cyclothymia A variability of mood over days or weeks, cycling from positive to negative mood states. The variability is NOT AS SEVERE IN AMPLITUDE OR DURATION TO BE CLASSIFIES AS A MAJOR AFFECTIVE DISORDER
Dejà vu An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a particular or unique event has happened before in exactly the same way.
Dyskinesia Abnorm mvmts as like TD llate onset onet of abnorm involuntary mvmts. TD is conventionally thought a late side effect of first generation antipsychotics, but some abnormal movements were seen in schizophrenia before the introduction of antipsychotics.
Psychopathology Literally, pathology of the mind; signs and symptoms of mental disorder
Nervous breakdown A general, nonspecific term for an incapacitating but otherwise unspecified type of mental disorder
Mental disorder Psychological group of symptoms, i.e. pattern/syndrome, which the indiv has distress (painful symptom), disability (impairment in 1 of important areas of functioning), or a signif increased risk of suffering, pain, loss of freedom, or death
Deviance Behavior outside the norm of a specific group; should not be construed to mean negative behavior
Crazy An informal, denigrating, and stigmatizing term for “mentally ill” that carries with it unfounded and negative implications
Dyspraxia Difficulty with a previously learnt or acquired movement or skill. An example might be a dressing dyspraxia or a constructional dyspraxia. Dyspraxias tend to indicate cortical damage, particularly in the parietal lobe region.
Echolalia A speech disorder in which the person inappropriately and automatically repeats the last words he or she has heard. Palilalia is a form of echolalia in which the last syllable heard is repeated endlessly.
Echopraxia . A movement disorder in which the person automatically and inappropriately imitates or mirrors the movements of another
First rank symptoms Schneider: characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia as first-rank features. Included third person auditory hallucinations, thought echo, thought interference (insertion, withdrawal, and broadcasting), delusional perception and passivity phenomena.
Flight of ideas In mania and hypomania thoughts become pressured and ideas may race from topic to topic, guided sometimes only by rhymes or puns. Ideas are associated though, unlike thought disorder.
Frontal lobe syndrome Follows frontal lobe damage or may be consequent upon a lesion (i.e. tumour of infarction). S&S lack judgement, a coarsening of personality, disinhibition, pressure of speech, lack of planning ability, and sometimes apathy. On/off grasp reflex may occur.
Hallucination An abnormal sensory experience that arises in the absence of a direct external stimulus, and which has the qualities of a normal percept and is experienced as real and usually in external space. Hallucinations may occur in any sensory modality.
Hypomania An affective disorder characterised by elation, overactivity, an insomnia.
Illusion An abnormal perception caused by a sensory misinterpretation of and actual stimulus, sometimes precipitated by strong emotion, e.g. fear provoking a person to imagine they have seen an intruder in the shadows.
Insight In psychotic mental disorders/organic brain syndromes pt's insight into whether they are ill & requiring tx may be affected. In depression/may lack insight into their best qualities. In mania a person may overestimate their wealth and abilities.
Jamais vu An abnormal experience where an individual feels that a routine or familiar event has never happened before. (See Dejà vu).
Korsakoff's Syndrome A syndrome of amnesia and confabulation following chronic alcoholism. Short-term memory is particularly affected.Named after the Russian psychiatrist Korsakoff. Made experiences. See 'Passivity phenomena'.
Mania An affective disorder characterised by intense euphoria, overactivity and loss of insight.
Neologism A novel word often invented and used in schizophrenic thought disorder.
Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome R/T neuroleptics & hyperpyrexia(temperature over 39 degrees Celsius), autonomic instability & muscular rigidity. NMS not dose related, appears r/t to antidepress, antipsychotics and lithium. Mortality risk. Is NMS is a variant of lethal catatonia syndrome
Obsession Unpleasant/nonsensical thought, intrudes into person's mind, despite a degree of resistance, who recognises the thought as pointless/senseless. Obsessions may be accompanied by compulsive behaviours which serve to reduce the associated anxiety.
Parietal Lobe signs Parietal lobe signs include various agnosias (such as visual agnosias, sensory neglect, and tactile agnosias), dyspraxias (such as dressing dyspraxia), body image disturbance, and hemipareses or hemiplegias.
Passivity phenomena Feel controlled ('mademvmts/impulses' indiv feels contolled by other. Arms or legs feel as if they are moving. 'Made emotions & 'made thoughts' which are categorised elsewhere as thought insertion and withdrawal.
Perseveration Describes an inappropriate repetition of some behaviour, thought, speech. Echolalia=preservation of speech. Perseveration is sometimes a feature of frontal lobe lesions.
Preservation of thought Inability to switch ideas, gives same answers to questions asked after different times.
Perseveration on a theme. Talking exclusively on one subject could be considered this.
Schizophasia A severe form of thought disorder.
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) A form of depressive illness only occurring during winter months, associated with overeating and sleepiness. Responsive to antidepressants and phototherapy. Little researched and scientifically controversial
Tardive dyskinesia An abnormal involuntary movement disorder which may manifest as lipsmacking bucco-lingual movements or grimacing, truncal movements or athetoid limb movements.
Thought blocking The unpleasant experience of having one's train of thought curtailed absolutely, often more a sign than a symptom.
Thought broadcasting The experience that one's thoughts are being transmitted from one's mind and broadcast to everyone.
Thought disorder A disorder of the form of thought, where associations between ideas are lost or loosened.
Thought echo Where thoughts are heard as if spoken aloud, when there is some delay these are known as echo de la pensée and when heard simultaneously, Gedankenlautwerden.
Thought insertion The experience of alien thoughts being inserted into the mind.
Thought withdrawal The experience of thoughts being removed or extracted from one's mind.
Word salad A severe form of thought disorder.
Lesch-Nyhan syndrome X-linked (%M/F). Can't recycle purines-hi uric acid. Males have delayed motor dvlpmnt-sinuous mvmnts&increased deep tendon reflexes. SIB:chewing fingertips&lips, w/o restrained. Poss enzyme deficiency.
Created by: glittergirlmk