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Dec 9

Addiction Pesonality,Theories and Prevention

How do we reach the adolescents? No clear answer
TYPES OF PREVENTION: 3 LEVELS Primary programs: stereotypical PRIMARY PROGRAMS: target non-users SECONDARY PROGRAMS: At-risk TERTIARY PROGRAMS: Already have addiction issues.(prevent progression of addiction
Primary programs: stereotypical PRIMARY PREVENTION PROGRAMS: target non-users
TERTIARY PROGRAMS: Already have addiction issues. (prevent progression of addiction)
**(stated important)**Prevention programs look to reduce Risk Factors and enhance
Protective Factors- newer 30 year concept: we can find things in individuals that have not used, and expand on how they did it
Mentorship has been shown to be a large protective factor. Sports, church,
RISK FACTOR: Any variable associated with drug abuse
DIFFERENT TYPES OF PREVENTION Drug education programs:
INFORMATION ONLY MODEL: i.e: DARE, Uses adult thinking. ASSUMES that a given information about the consequences of use, fewer individuals will engage in substance use/abuse. •The WORST at drug prevention, b/c it is passing information and kids/young adults tune info out.
ATTITUDE CHANGE MODEL: (Psych) Assumes that ppl use b/c of low-self-esteem and works to increase positive self-image.
(sociological): Focuses on teaching and practicing resistance to peer pressure as well as drug education. Peer pressure was thought of as more of a bully effect.
HOWEVER: Adolescents are more like their peers, so develop into “chumship”, so PEER PRESSURE WORKS TO EVENTUALLY GIVE IN AND DO DRUGS.
PERSON IN THE ENVIRONMENT MODEL (Sociology): The theory here is that changes in the environment will change people and all intervention should be grass-roots movements from within the system.
GRASS ROOTS CONTINUED 1. TAKES MORE MAN POWER 2. People want a solution first,not FIND the solution after money is given. 3.More expensive 4.Has 2 components; a.Pay to find b.Pay to apply the solution
Drug Tx: Stages of Change (a model for ALL models) **know!** Transtheordical: applies no matter what theory you use/believe
STAGE OF CHANGE cont: Precontemplation I am not aware a change needs to be made.(“it’s no big deal that I use, does not cause harm to others)
STAGE OF CHANGE cont: Contemplation People of are 2 minds about change. Ambivalent.Ex:exercise.On one hand want to exercise on the other hand do something else instead.
STAGE OF CHANGE cont: Contemplation cont: Most of addicts spend the majority of their time in the contemplation stage. “Need to quit.” “it’s Friday and drinking, why not?”
STAGE OF CHANGE cont: Preparation: I have decided to make a change. Ex: Smokers. I’m going to quit, gotta quit.
STAGE OF CHANGE cont: Action: Put action to doing it. Each stage needs individual therapy.
STAGE OF CHANGE cont: Maintenance: When the change has become the norm.
THEORIES: AA: Alcoholics Anonymous (not therapy, but has helped ppl stop using) A spiritual program based on the completion of 12-steps that lead to sobriety Spiritual – original means to be “light and full” “shining light”
THEORIES: AA Continued You can get spiritual fulfillment from many things, doing good on a test, going to a temple Religion is to connect their community to a larger entity.
Strengths of AA A program of sponsorship in which those in recovery help others as a way to stay sober themselves. Expectation of success Concrete: ppl know exactly what their expectations are, know what needs to be done.
WEAKNESSES of AA: Does not directly address motivation or ambivalence.(some ppl do not want to quit)
MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING (MI) A patient centered therapy focused on the ultimate resolution of ambivalence about substance use. Can expose and resolve ambivalence.
MI STRENGTHS: Directly addresses motivation and ambivalence. I Behavior change s internally determined and motivate.. Solutions come from the individual.
MI WEAKNESSES Does not directly address the family system in which the dysfunction is fostered.
COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY A therapy focused on changing thinking and behavior though goal-oriented by systematic changes.
COGNITIVE STRENGTHS  Strengths: It has been studied at length and has been shown to be effective. One cannot measure thinking or emotions but behaviors can be measured. The outcome of changing behaviors is measurable after a short period of time. Will always be used.
COGNITIVE WEAKNESSES Does not directly address/affect motivation and the family system.
FAMILY THEORY/THERAPY: Many problems are not linear, but circular in nature. Circular causality. “I drink b/c you nag” “I nag b/c you drink.” the ways in which the family system is sick.
STRENGTHS OF Family Theory The family b/c a safe factor, not a risk factor. Shift the system towards being healthy.
WEAKNESS of Family Theory Does not directly address motivation and ambivalence.
Created by: mcbeats