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Wellness Final - MU

QuestionAnswer
How stress occurs Stress occurs as a result of the interplay of environment situations and life events and the mental, emotional, and physical reactions
Stressors Situations and events that bring about stress
Environmental component of stress Harm-and-loss situations: Threat-situations; Challenge situations
Harm-and-loss situations Stress occurs because an important need is not met
Threat situations Perceived or interpreted as potentially causing harm or loss
Challenge situations Major life transitions that are opportunities for growth.
Positive challenges Create Eustress
Negative challenges Creates Distress
Mental components of stress Appraisal of a situation as absolutely or potentially damaging to one's physical or psychological well-being or a threat to one's survival. Believing that one's personal resources are insufficient to overcome the threat to one's well-being
Emotional component of stress Consists of unpleasant emotions that arise from one's appraisal of a situation as harmful or threatening and one's resources for protection as limited
Stages of GAS: The Resistance Stage The body adapts to the continued presence of the stressor by producing more epinephrine, increasing alertness and blood pressure, and suppressing the immune system
Stages of GAS: The Resistance Stage 2 A new level of homeostasis characterized by increased resistance to stress; the body returns to normal functioning as stress symptoms diminish.
Stages of GAS: The Exhaustion Stage If coping attempts fail, the ability to resist is depleted, stress remains, and the alarm reaction continues for a long time causing life-threatening physiological exhaustion and harmful effects
Fight-or-Flight Responses Singes Elevated heart rate, elevated blood pressure, constricted blood vessels, dilated pupils, alert and aroused state, liberation of glucose and fatty acids for quick energy, body perspires and muscles tighten
Emotional response to stress Emotional responses may include: anxiety, depression, fear, sadness, insomnia
How stress contributes to disease Prolonged GAS causes the mind and body to become exhausted, worn down and damaged, including: cardiovascular disease; weakening of the immune system
How stress contributes to disease 2 Other health problems such as: digestive problems, headaches, insomnia, injuries, female reproductive issues, psychological disorders
Polyphasia: It can lead to sensory overload as the mind juggles thoughts competing for attention. Ex: driving to work while multi-tasking
Gender and stress Gender roles affect perception of and responses to stressors. Both sexes experience the fight-or-flight physiological response to stress
Gender and stress 2 Women are more likely to respond behaviorally with a pattern of "tend-and-befriend". Gender differences may be partly tied to higher levels of the hormone "oxytocin" in women
Managing Stress: Exercise Redues anxiety and increases sense of well-being. Mobilizes energy resources to complete the energy cycle. Avoid compulsive exercise
Managing Stress: Healthy Nutrition Eat a balanced diet. Avoid excess caffeine
Managing Stress: Sleep Lack of sleep is both a cause and an effect of excess stress
Managing Stress: Communication Balance anger and assertiveness
Managing Stress: Social Support Foster friendships, keep family ties strong, get involved with a group
Cardiovascular Disease CVD: disease of the heart and blood vessels, leading cause of death in the US, it affects 80 million Americans, claims one life every 37 seconds, 2400 every day, risk factors are controllable, some not
Risk factors for CVD: Can be changed Tobacco use, high blood pressure (hypertension), Unhealthy cholesterol levels (HDL, LDL), physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes
Risk factors for CVD: Can NOT be changed Heredity (multiple genes contribute to risk), aging (risk goes up), being male, ethnicity (african americans higher risk of hypertension and stroke)
Forms of heart disease Heart Attacks, Myocardial infraction (MI), coronary thrombosis, angina pectoris, arrhythmia, sudden death
Heart Attack Is a damage to, or death of, heart muscle, sometimes resulting in failure of the heart to deliver enough blood with oxygen to the body; also known as myocardial infraction (MI)
Coronary Thrombosis A term used to describe the blockage of a coronary artery secondary to blood clotting within the artery
Angia Pectoris Is chest pain, a signal that the heart is not getting enough oxygen to supply its needs
Arrhythmia A condition when electrical impulses that control heartbeat become disrupted, resulting in an irregular pattern
Sudden Cardiac Death Cardiac arrest is caused by arrhythmias and ann result in death, if not treated immediately
Stroke An impeded blood supply to some part of the brain results in the destruction of brain cells; a cerebrovascular accident (CVA)
Weight Management: Prevalence and trends National Institute of health reports 67% of american adults are overweight. more than 33% are obese, the number of obese adults more than doubled between 1971-2006. current rates by 2015, 75% overweight, 41% obese
Overweight Having a BMI of 25-29, or having body weight above 10% of recommended levels
Obese Having a BMI of 30 or more, or having body weight above 20% of recommended levels
Underweight Having a BMI below 18.5 or having body weight lower than 10% of recommended levels
As rates increased in the US, so has the prevalence of health conditions including: CVD, hypertension, certain forms of cancer, type 2 diabetes, premature deaths
A weight loss of just 5-10% can... Reduce the risk of these conditions in obese and overweight individuals
The body cannot store... Protein, fat or carbohydrates in their original food forms
Excess calorie intake from those energy-producing nutrients will be eventually converted into... Fat and stored in the body in the adipose tissues
3,500 of excess calories stored without use represent how much fat stored in the body? 1 pound
Controlling healthy body weight is really a matter of controlling... Excess body energy and energy expenditure
Factors contributing to weight problems: Genetic Factors Influence body size and shape, body fat distribution, appetite and metabolic rate.
Genetic contribution to obesity is estimated 5-40%
A child born to obese parents has what percent of becoming obese? 50%
Heredity influences must be balanced against Contribution of environmental factors such as overeating and leading sedentary lifestyle
Factors contributing to weight problems: Physiological Factors Resting metabolic rate, makes the largest component of the total metabolism expenditure
Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) Is the energy required to maintaining basic vital body functions
RMR is higher in: Men, people with more muscle mass, people who exercise on a regular basis
RMR is lower in: Women, people who are sedentary, people who have lost weight
Hormones Appetite regulating hormones play a significant role in the regulation of body fat
Ghrelin and Leptin Two of the key hormones that act on the brain in order to normalize your drive for eating food
Ghrelin Appetite stimulation peptide, can accelerate food intake boosting overeating and weight gain.
Stretched by the stomach to enhance your appetite for food, and also influences the metabolism of fat tissues by promoting its storage during hard times Ghrelin
Ghrelin secretion fluctuates both before and after food intake with... An increase prior to a meal and decreases afterwards
Leptin An appetite-suppressing hormone, means "full" in Greek
Produced by fat cells and is released in the brain via blood circulation Leptin
Leptin appears to let the brain know... How full or empty the body's fat stores are during eating. The brain can regulate your appetite and metabolic rate accordingly
Major role of Leptin is... To give us a feeling of satisfaction or fullness by including a signal to diminish appetite and stop eating
Factors contributing to weight factors: Lifestyle Factors Eating, compared to the past, americans now consume more calories, consume more refined (white flour) and simple carbohydrates (sugars), eat out and snack more, people underestimate proportion size
Physical activity Levels have declined, americans spend 15 min per day exercising, 170 min per day with media
If you take in more calories than you need, then... You will gain body fat
Energy balance Taking in only what you need, so that your input equals your output
Excess calories will be stored; there are two principal calorie-storing mechanisms: Glycogen and Triglyceride
Glycogen Storage form of carbohydrates in the muscle and liver
Triglyceride Storage from of fat from the energy-producing foods
The body is designated to... Store fat easily in case you ever have to go without food for days
The best weight loss efforts produce a 5-10% reduction in body weight over the... First 6 months of trying and no more after that
Adopting a healthy lifestyle for successful weight management Examine diet and eating habits, increase exercise, examine behavior modification; thoughts and emotions, create effective coping strategies, maintain healthy body weight
Eating disorders Serious disturbance in eating patterns or behaviors
Major types of eating disorders Anorexia nervosa, Bulimia nervosa, Binge-eating disorder
Body image The mental representation a person holds about their body, consists of perception, images, thoughts, attitudes and emotions
A negative body image is... Usually characterized by dissatisfaction with the body in general or some part of the body in particular
Different cultures have different ideas of... The "ideal" body type
Poor body image can cause Significant psychological distress and severe body image problems
Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD) Related to obsessive-compulsive disorder, lead to depression, suicide and social phobia, treated with medication and psychotherapy
Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder experienced by people who perceive themselves as having small, underdeveloped muscles and despite being very muscular
Anorexia Nervosa Voluntary refusal to eat that leads to severe underweight and disturbance in metabolism
Affects 1-2 million americans, 95% female and develops between the ages of 12-18 Anorexia
Self starvation, involves weight loss between 15-25% below normal body weight, severe medical complications when below 50% normal weight including 15-20% mortality rate Anorexia
Anorexia is characterized by... young women (all ages and men), irrational intense fear of gaining weight, overprotective family unable to deal with interfamily conflict and demands
Preoccupation with food Not eating in presence of others, sense of ineffectiveness, compensated by control of eating and body weight as an expression of control and competence, stubbornness and irony
Possible causes of Anorexia Attempt to stop the physical changes associated with the onset of puberty, establish own identity by controlling environment, avoidance of family conflicts and pressure, media-driven obsession (glamour) low self esteem
Uncontrolled consumption of large quantities of food in a short time, even if person is not hungry. 2% of american adults. episodes is followed by feelings of disgust, depression and guilt Binge-eating disorder
Patterns of Binge-eating Eating very rapidly, until uncomfortably full, even when not hungry, alone or surreptitiously, usually eating standing or walking
Treatment for Binge-eating Dealing with problematic eating behaviors and the misuse of food to manage stress and emotions, averting reaching a medical crisis, dealing with psychological underlying causes, stabilizing normal eating habits
Bulimia nervosa Recurrent episodes of binge eating and purging, extreme overeating followed by self-induced vomiting or use of laxitives, use of excessive exercise to prevent weight gain
Uncontrollable consumption of large quantities of food in a short period of time, even if the person isn't hungry, begins in adolescent or young adulthood Bulimia
During a binge a person may consume... 1,000 to 60,000 calories
Binge-purge cycle places... Tremendous stress on the body and occurs up to 20 times a day every 2 hours
Less visible than anorexia because... Bulimics usually maintain close to normal body weight
Begins in adolescence (11-12 yrs) or (40-60 yrs) Bulimia
5% of college women Have bulimia
Usual weight fluctuation is 10-15 pounds Bulimia
Causes of Bulimia Response to psychological stress, manifestation of a drive to become perfect, negative body image, irrational concerns about body weight or body image, low self esteem
Created by: M.koch