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Wellness- Chapter 8

Wellness Exam 3-MU

QuestionAnswer
The science that studies the ACT and PROGRESS of eating and utilizing food substances and how the body uses it in health and disease Nutrition
The set of metabolic pathways that construct molecules from smaller units such as using energy to construct components of cells such as proteins Anabolism
The set of metabolic pathways which breakdown molecules into smaller units and release energy Catabolism
The set of chemical reactions that occur in living organisms in order to maintain life by converting food into energy and building raw materials Metabolism
The habit of eating usual food and drinks, including the kind and amount of food prescribed for each person Diet
A chemical in food crucial to the body's growth, repair, maintenance, energy needs and other vital functions Nutrient
Are substances the body must get from food because it cannot manufacture them at all or fast enough to meet its needs Essential Nutrients
The number of nutrients available to us in food 45-50 nutrients
The amount of heat it takes to raise the temperature of 1 liter (1kg) of water 1˚C; commonly referred to as "calorie" Kilocalorie (Kcal)
1 gram yields 4 calories (two nutrients) Carbohydrates and Proteins
1 gram yields 9 calories Fat
Do not contain heat or provide calories and include: Vitamins (13 kinds) Minerals Water Non-energy Producing Nutrients
Organic compounds made up of chemical units called amino acids that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen Proteins
Foods that supply all the essential amino acids in adequate amounts such as: meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk, cheese, and soy Complete Protein Sources
Foods that supply most BUT NOT ALL essential amino acids such as: plants including: legumes, grains, seeds, and nuts Incomplete Protein Sources
Based on body weight, about how much grams/day of protein do MEN need 55-60 g/day
Based on body weight, about how much grams/day of protein do WOMEN need 45 g/day
Adequate daily intake of protein is about how many grams per kilogram of body weight 0.8 g/kg
Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA) of protein intake is about what percent of the total daily intake of calories 10-15%
Essential in small amounts; they are key regulators of body process such as the maintenance of blood pressure and the progress of a healthy pregnancy Lipids (fats)
A fat with no carbon-carbon double bonds; usually solid at room temperature; found primarily in animal foods, and palm and coconut oils Saturated Fat
A fat with one carbon-carbon double bond; usually liquid at room temperature; found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils Monounsaturated fat
A fat with two or more carbon-carbon double bonds; usually liquid at room temperature; found in certain vegetables, nuts, and vegetable oils, and in fatty fish Polyunsaturated fat
Are produced when the end most double bond of a polyunsaturated fat occurs; found primarily in non-shell fish, especially in sockeye salmon, mackeral, flounder, and tilapia Omega 3
Are produced when the endmost double bond of a polyunsaturated fat occurs six carbons from the end of the fatty acid chain; found primarily in certain vegetable oils, especially in corn, canola, soybean, walnut and cotton seed oils Omega 6
essential to good health, but needed is small and measured amounts; a fat-like waxy compound that occures in bile, blood, brain, nerve tissue, liver and other. cholesterol
The liver produces what percentage of our cholesterol needs (genetically controlled) 15%
The "bad" kind of cholesterol; it contains 25% protein and 45% cholesterol; high level is linked to heart disease and stroke Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL)
The "good" kind of cholesterol; less than 35mg/dl is considered to be too low High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL)
primary function is to supply energy to body cells; some cells, such as those in the brain, nervous system, and blood use these only for fuels; during high-intensity exercises, muschles get most of their energy from this carbohydrates
Contain one or two sugar units in each molecule; found naturally in fruits and milk and added sugar to many other foods; the include: sucrose, fructose, maltose, and lactose Simple Carbohydrates
Consist of chains of many sugar molecules; found in plants, especially grains, legumes, and tubers; they include: startches and most types of dietary fiber Complex Carbohydrates
it can occur in about 30-45 minutes in stop-and-go sports, and depending on age and fitness levels Glycogen Depletion
Fiber that dissolves in water or is broken down by bacteria in the large intestine; slows down the body's absorption of glucose and binds cholesterol-containing compounds Soluble (Viscous) Fiber
Fiber that doesn't dissolve in water; makes feces bulkier and softer, helps prevent constipation and hemorrhoids Insoluble Fiber
RDA intake of fiber range 25-30 grams/day
A measure of how the ingestion of a particular carbohydrate affects blood glucose levels Glycemic Index
Adequate daily intake of carbohydrates is about 130 grams
Organic substances that facilitate (but do not cause) a variety of biological processes; must be obtained from food Vitamins
Vitamins such as Vitamin A, D, E, and K Fat Soluble Vitamins
Vitamins such as Vitamin C and the 8 B complex vitamins (thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, Vitamin B-6, folate (folic acid), vitamin (B-12) biotin, and pantothenic acid) Water Soluble Vitamins
What are the vitamins (3) constantly lacking in the American Diet? Vitamin A, C, B-6
Chemical substances that can inhibit the oxidation of free radicals Antioxidants
Inorganic substances that assist in a myriad of body functions such as regulation, growth, and maintenance of body tissues Minerals
Those that the body needs in amounts exceeding 5 grams per day; include: Calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride Macro-Minerals
Needed in the human body in amounts less than 5 grams/day; include: copper, fluoride, iodine, iron, selenium, and zinc Minor (Trace) Minerals
Minerals commonly lacking in the American diet are Iron, Calcium, Potassium
The chemical substance with chemical formula H2O; major component of cells and blood Water
On a daily basis we loose about how many quarts of water Two and a half quarts
The human body is composed of about how many gallons of water 10-12 gallons of water
Potentially fatal disturbance in brain function that results when the normal balance of electrolytes in the body is pushed outside of safe limits by water; also known as: Hyponatremia "low blood sodium", Hyper-hydration, or water poisoning Water Intoxication
Strict vegetarian diets exclude all animal products, including milk, cheese, eggs and other dairy products Vegan
Diets exclude meat, poultry, fish, AND eggs but include dairy products only Lacto-Vegetarian
Diet excludes meats, poultry, and seafood but INCLUDE eggs AND dairy products Lacto-ovo-Vegetarian
Selectively eat certain types of meats Semi-Vegetarian
Created by: leo7o9