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bkx HSC101 Q

HSC-101 Quiz: Cancer

QuestionAnswer
Bidi hand-rolled, flavored cigarettes
DNA damages tumor suppressor gene & growth regulating gene are damaged
Tumor suppressor gene repairs mistakes in DNA
Growth regulating gene regulates growth and division
Proto-oncogene stimulates cells to divide; cancer turns proto-oncogenes into oncogenes, stimulating growth and division repeatedly without stimulation
Three External Factors Chemicals, radiation, viruses
Four Internal Factors Free radicals, hormones, inherited mutationsk, immune conditions
Two biggest risk factors Tobacco (1/3) & unhealthy diet or body weight (1/3)
Risks for Men & Women 1 out of 2 men, 1 out of 3 women
Benign tumor does not typically spread
Malignant tumor capable of metastasizing
Free radicals electron-seekers
Antioxidants electron donors
Vitamin C need 60-75mg per day (strawberries, citrus, potatoes)
Vitamin E need 12mg or 22 IU per day (nuts, vegetable oils)
Phytochemicals act as antioxidants (ex. Beta-carotene)
Indoles trigger enzymes to inhibit estrogen action
Five Ways Food Can Block Cancer Progression 1) Carcinogen vs. destroys carcinogens, 2) damages DNA vs. enhances DNA repair capacity, 3) uncontrolled cell division vs. slows tumor growth, 4) invades nearby tissue vs. induces apoptosis, 5) spreads throughout body vs. slows cancer progression
Two Roles of Genetics 1) response to exposures, 2) susceptibility to certain types of cancer
Top Three Cancers in Men 1) Prostate, 2) Lung, 3) Colorectal
Top Three Cancers in Women 1) Breast, 2) Lung, 3) Colorectal
Top Killer Lung cancer
Percent of cancer deaths caused by tobacco 42% in men, 30% in women
Most preventable cause of death by lung cancer Smoking (87%)
Three Ways Smoking Damages the Lungs 1) irritates lung pathways causing mucus production, 2) destroys the walls of the alveoli, 3) tar directly causes cancer
Prostate Cancer (Age) 70% diagnosed over age 65
Prostate Cancer (Family History) may account for 5-10% of all cases
Early Detection Systems of Prostate Cancer Prostate Specific Antigen test (PSA) and rectal Exam
Percentage of men with prostate cancer 50% by age 80, 80% by age 100
Okinawa phenomenon people in Okinawa have 80% less PC than Americans – most have never even heard of it
Percent of women with breast cancer 1/8 – <1% under 30 years old, 4% up to 40, 19% to 50, 77% past 50
Breast Cancer (Family History) 5-15% of cases – if you have the gene, you have 50-85% chance of developing BC during your lifetime
Breast cancer & estrogen exposure every birth reduces a woman’s risk by 7%, every year of breast feeding reduces risk by 4.3%
Colorectal cancer (Age) 90% diagnosed are older than 50
Colorectal cancer (Family History) 5% due to inherited mutation
Colorectal cancer (Smoking) 12% of fatalities
Early Detection Systems of Colorectal Cancer 1) Fecal Occult Blood test, 2) Flexible Sigmoidoscopy, 3) Colonoscopy, 4) Double Contrast Barium Enema
UVA rays longer waves, cause wrinkles and can initiate or promote tumors
UVB rays shorter ways, cause sunburn, eye and immune system damage, and DNA damage
Tanning bed risk 8x stronger risk than non-tanning bed users
Skin Cancer (Family History) 10% of cases have family history
ABCD Test 1) Asymmetry, 2) Border, 3) Color, 4) Diameter
Two Dietary Guidelines from the American Cancer Society 1) Plant-based diet, 2) Limit high-fat foods, particularly from animal products
Created by: bamkapowxo