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Cultural #5

visible easily seen culture
invisible less observable commponents of culture
Sikh man is easily identifiable by clothes: uncut hair with wooden comb, beard, turban, cotton underwear, steel bracelet, and short sword.
Subcultures such as appalachian an missouri ozark
Ethnicity refers to a shared identity related to social and cultural heritage such as values, language, geographical space, and racial characteristics.
emic worldview) is an insider or native perspective
emic worldview an outsider's perspective
acculturation process of adapting to and adopting a new culture
enculturation Socialization into one's primary culture as a child
Assimilation results when an individual gradually adopts and incorporates the characteristics of the dominant culture
Biculturalism occurs when an individual identifies equally with two or more cultures
transcultural nursing s a comparative study of cultures to understand similarities (culture universal) and differences (culture-specific) across human groups.
culturally congruent care is the ability of a nurse to bridge cultural gaps in caring, work with cultural differences, and enable clients and families to achieve meaningful and supportive caring.
ethnocentrism, a tendency to hold one's own way of life as superior to others
cultural imposition use their own values and lifestyles as the absolute guide in dealing with clients and interpreting their behaviors
Hmong refugees roup of people who originated from the mountainous regions of Laos)
shaman who performs the ritual to retrieve the client's soul
Western Cultures;Cause of illness Biomedical causes
Western ;Method of diagnosis Scientific, high-tech Specialty focused Organ-specific manifestations
Western:Treatment Specialty specific Pharmacological Surgery
Western: Practitioners/healers Uniform standards and qualifications for practice
Western:Caring pattern Self-care Self-determination
Non-Western: Cause of illness Imbalance between humans and nature Supernatural Magico-religious
Non-Western:Method of diagnosis Naturalistic, magico-religious Holistic Mixed
Non-Western: Treatment Holistic Mixed (magico-religious, supernatural herbal, biomedical, etc.)
Non-Western ; Practitioners/healer May be learned through apprenticeship Criteria for practice not uniform Reputation established in community
Non-Western:Caring Pattern Caring provided by others Group reliance and interdependence
Naturalistic practitioners attribute illness to natural, impersonal, and biological forces that cause alteration in the equilibrium of the human body
personalistic practitioners believe that an external agent, which can be human (i.e., sorcerer) or nonhuman (e.g., ghosts, evil, or deity), causes health and illness.
Culture-bound syndromes re illnesses that are specific to one culture
rites of passage as significant social markers of changes in a person's life. Examining the practices surrounding these life events provides a view of the cultural meanings and expressions relevant to these transitions.
cultural pain when health care providers disregard their valued way of life
Ethnohistory refers to significant historical experiences of a particular group
fictive or nonblood kin
bilineal:patrilineal:matrilineal both the father's and mother's side of the family, limited to the side of either father,or mother
Sabbath Jewish clients,when they refrain from using electrical appliances, requires creative accommodations by the staff such as placing articles of care near the client so he or she need not use the call light or telephone to get assistance
rabbi who will then contact the client's next of kin unreachable by telephone during Sabbath.
kosher diet will avoid meat from carnivores, pork products, and fish without scales or fins.
Cultural care preservation or maintenance Retain and/or preserve relevant care values so that clients maintain their well-being, recover from illness, or face handicaps and/or death.
Cultural care accommodation or negotiation Adapt or negotiate with others for a beneficial or satisfying health outcome.
Cultural care repatterning or restructuring Reorder, change, or greatly modify clients' lifestyles for a new, different, and beneficial health care pattern.
Population Diversity white not hispanic 66.9%,hispanic or latino 14.4%, black 12.8%,asian 12.3%,other 2.7%
Culturally Congruent Care Culturally competent care requires specific knowledge, skills, and attitudes in the delivery of culturally congruent care
Culture conflict Culture provides the context for valuing, evaluating, and categorizing life experiences. Ethnocentrism is the cause of biases and prejudices that associate negative permanent characteristics with people of another culture.
Cultural Context of Health and Caring Health, illness, and caring are unique to each culture (Kleinman, 1979; Leininger, 2002a). Culture is the context in which groups of people interpret and define their experiences relevant to life transitions. This includes life events.
Culture-Bound Syndrome Human groups create their own interpretation and descriptions of biological and psychological malfunctions within their unique social and cultural context (Kleinman, 1980). Culture-bound syndromes are illnesses that are specific to one culture.
Pregnancy All cultures value reproduction because it promotes continuity of the family and community. Pregnancy is generally associated with caring practices that symbolize the significance of this life transition in women.
Childbirth How individuals express pain and the expectation about how to treat suffering varies cross-culturally.
Newborn Newborns and young children are often considered vulnerable, and many societies use a variety of ways to prevent harm to the child. The age of the child varies in some cultures.The name of the child reflects cultural values of the group
Postpartum Period In many non-Western cultures the postpartum period is associated with vulnerability of the mother to cold. The length of the postpartum period is generally much longer (30 to 40 days) in non-Western cultures to provide support for the mother and her baby.
Nursing Practice Be aware of religious and cultural preference Ask families about the rituals and ceremonies Allow clients and families the ability to participate Be sensitive to cultural perceptions
Grief and Loss Dying and death bring traditions that are of their lives. Culture strongly influences pain expression and need for pain medication. Implement organizational policies intended to be sensitive to clients' cultural life patterns.
Cultural Assessment is a systematic and comprehensive examination of the cultural care values, beliefs, and practices of individuals, families, and communities. Cultural assessment allows for culturely congruent care.
Ethnic Heritage and Ethnohistory Knowledge of a client's country of origin and its history and ecological contexts are significant to health care.
Biocultural History. Identify clients' health risks related to sociocultural and biological history on admission
Identify clients' health risks related to sociocultural and biological history on admission Cultural groups consist of units of organization defined by kinship, status, and appropriate roles for their members. In the dominant American society the most common unit of social organization is the nuclear family.
Religious and Spiritual Beliefs. Religious and spiritual beliefs are major influences in the client's worldview about health and illness, pain and suffering, and life and death
Communication Patterns. Different cultural groups have distinct linguistic and communication patterns.
Culturally Sensitive Communication Ask older adults how they like to be addressed., Determine client's preferences for touch, Be aware of the client's beliefs.
Time Orientation All cultures have past, present, and future time dimensions.It is important for nurses to understand their clients' time orientation. This information is useful in planning a day of care, setting up appointments for procedures, and helping a client plan.
Caring Beliefs and Practices Respect,Concern, Attention to details,Helping/ assisting or facilitative acts, Active listening,Presence, Connectedness, protection( gender),Touching,and Comfort measures.
Experience With Professional Health Care Understanding the emic perspective of the client about professional health care is valuable in correcting misconceptions and preventing culturally offensive actions
Nursing Decisions Cultural care preservation or maintenance Cultural care accommodation or negotiation Cultural care repatterning or restructuring
Created by: azchic1973