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bkx HSC101 T2, P2

HSC-101 Test #2, Part 1: Nutrition

QuestionAnswer
Nutrition Worksheet: Recommended Daily Intake Fiber: 20-30g Cholesterol: <300mg Sodium: <2300mg Calcium: 1000-1300mg Folic acid: 400mcg
Top 5 Sources of Calories in America 1) Soft drinks (7.1%) 2) Pastries (3.6%) 3) Hamburgers (3.1%) 4) Pizza (3.1%) 5) Chips (2.9%)
Digestive System Mouth → Esophagus → Stomach → Small intestine → Large intestine → Rectum; also involves Gallbladder, Liver & Pancreas
Two Types of Nutrients Macronutrients: Proteins, fats & carbohydrates (energy-yielding) Micronutrients: Vitamins & minerals (non-energy-yielding)
Benefits of Carbohydrates -Supply 40% of energy at rest -Supply 95% of energy at max
Amount of Carbohydrates -45-65% of total calories (<15% simple, ~45% complex) -Deficiency results in decreased concentration and performance -Excess is stored as glycogen
Types of Carbohydrates Simple -Monosaccharide (fructose, glucose, galactose) -Disaccharide (sucrose, maltose, lactose) Complex -Polysaccharide (starch, glycogen, fiber)
Processed Carbs Remove the nutritious germ & bran, leaving only the fluffy endosperm
Two Types of Fiber Soluble & Insoluble
Benefits of Fat -Supplies 60% of energy at rest -Required to absorb fat-soluble vitamins -Provides essential fatty acids
Amount of Fat -20-35% of total calories (<10% saturated or trans fat) -Deficiency reduces intake of essential fatty acids & fat-soluble vitamins -Excess increases risk of obesity, heart disease and cancer
Types of Fat -Saturated (solid) -Monounsaturated (liquid) -Polyunsaturated (liquid) -Trans (turns liquid into solid)
Two Types of Fatty Acids -Linoleic acid (Omega-6) – 1% of total daily calories -Seeds -Alpha-linoleic acid (Omega-3) - .2% of total daily calories -Reduces blood clots, maintains heartbeat rhythm, prevents tumor formation -Flaxseed, walnuts, canola oil, soy
Benefits of Protein -Provides up to 15% of daily energy -Growth & repair
Amount of Protein -10-35% of total calories -Deficiency is uncommon in U.S. -Excess is stored as fat
Composition of Protein -Amino acids: building blocks of protein -Essential amino acids: must obtain from diet -Non-essential amino acids: body can manufacture
Two Types of Protein Complete & Incomplete
Two Types of Vitamins Fat-soluble & water-soluble
What vitamins are fat-soluble A, D, E, K
What vitamins are water-soluble B, C, Folic Acid
Vitamin A A: vision, skin, bones, teeth – milk, cheese, orange fruits & veggies
Beta-carotene precursor to Vitamin A (Beta-carotene is what’s in the food that gets turned into Vitamin A in your body)
Vitamin D D: bone mineralization, calcium absorption – sunlight, milk, eggs
Vitamin E E: antioxidant (protects cell functions) – sunflower seeds, almonds, wheat germ, vegetable oil
Vitamin K K: blood clotting – dark leafy greens
Vitamin B Complex B Complex: converts food into energy – dark leafy greens
Vitamin C C: antioxidant, immune system, iron absorption – citrus, bell peppers, broccoli
Folic Acid Folic acid: forms DNA & new cells – OJ, dark leafy greens, beans
Two Types of Minerals Major minerals & trace minerals
Major Minerals Major minerals -Calcium: builds bones, nerve conduction muscle movement -Milk, fortified OJ, dark leafy greens -Sodium: fluid balance, regulates blood pressure -Processed foods, table salt
Trace Minerals Trace minerals -Iron: carries oxygen -Red meat, beans, fortified cereal
What is the recommended daily intake of water 8+ eight-ounce glasses of water a day
USDA "My Plate" 25% fruits, 25% veggies (slightly more veggies than fruits), 25% protein, 25% grains (slightly more grains than protein), circle where a glass of milk might go, labeled "Dairy"
Created by: bamkapowxo