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bkx HSC101 T1

HSC-101 Test #1

Top 3 Leading Causes of Death in United States 1. Heart Disease 2. Cancer 3. Stroke
#1 Actual Cause of Death in United States Tobacco
Six Dimensions of Wellness (PEIISE) 1. Physical 2. Emotional 3. Intellectual 4. Interpersonal 5. Spiritual 6. Environmental
CDC Recommended Exercise 30+ minutes of moderate intensity exercise daily
Define Sedentary Death Syndrome Term used to describe the increased risk of death that is associated with an inactive lifestyle
Five Health-Related Components of Fitness (F-BEES) 1. Flexibility 2. Body composition 3. Cardiorespiratory endurance 4. Muscular endurance 5. Muscular strength
What is flexibility Ability to move a joint through a full range of motion
What is body composition Percentage of fat and fat-free mass
What is cardiorespiratory endurance Ability of heart, lungs, and blood vessels to supply oxygen to the muscles
What is muscular endurance Ability to exert a submaximal force repeatedly over time
What is muscular strength Ability to exert a force in one maximal effort
Six Performance-Related Components of Fitness (B-SPARC) 1. Balance 2. Speed 3. Power 4. Agility 5. Reaction time 6. Coordination
Four Training Principles (SPOR) 1. Specificity 2. Progressive overload 3. Overtraining 4. Reversibility
Describe specificity Body adapts to the type and amount of stress placed on it
Describe progressive overload Increasing amounts of stress cause adaptations that improve fitness
Describe overtraining Training too much or too intensely may decrease performance and energy
Describe reversibility Use it or lose it
7 Steps of Blood-Flow Through the Heart 1. Deoxygenated blood through venae cavae to right atrium 2. Then to left ventricle 3. Then through pulmonary artery to lungs 4. Lungs oxygenate blood 5. Then through pulmonary vein to left atrium 6. Then to left ventricle 7. Then to aorta
Two Types of Venae Cavae Superior Vena Cava & Inferior Vena Cava: pump deoxygenated blood into right atrium from above and below, respectively
What is the largest artery Aorta
Pulmonary Artery Carries deoxygenated blood AWAY from heart - the only artery that carries deoxygenated blood
Pulmonary Vein Carries oxygenated blood TO the heart - the only vein that carries oxygenated blood
Two Kinds of Circulation 1. Pulmonary Circulation: Right side of heart pumps blood to lungs 2. Systemic Circulation: Left side of heart pumps blood to body
What is the "pacemaker" of the heart called SA Node
Four Components of Blood 1. Plasma 2. Red Blood Cells: Carry oxygen 3. White Blood Cells: Attack foreign substances 4. Platelets: Clotting
Three Kinds of Blood Vessels 1. Arteries 2. Veins 3. Capillaries
Define Heart Rate (HR) Beats/minute
Define Stroke Volume (SV) Milliliters/beat INCREASES WITH training
Define Cardiac Output (CO) Liters/Minute CO = HR x SV
Describe Arterial-Venous Oxygen Difference (a-v)O2 Difference between oxygen levels in arteries and veins, thereby measuring how effectively one's body absorbs oxygen (INCREASES WITH TRAINING)
Two Types of Blood Pressure 1. Systolic Blood Pressure 2. Diastolic Blood Pressure (Systolic over Diastolic when measuring blood pressure) *During exercise, systolic blood pressure INCREASES while diastolic blood pressure DECREASES.
What is VO2 Max Maximal oxygen consumption; INCREASES with training
Basic form of energy ATP
How are carbohydrates stored Glycogen in muscles & liver
Three Energy Systems 1. ATP (Immediate/Explosive, 1-10 sec) 2. Anaerobic (10-120 sec) 3. Aerobic (120+ sec)
Calculating Target Heart Rate 220-age = HR MAX HR MAX x 60% = minimum HR HR MAX x 90% = maximum HR
Three Reasons to Warm Up 1. Increases body temperature 2. Increases blood flow to muscles 3. Spreads synovial fluid throughout joints
Three Reasons to Cool Down 1. Increases blood flow to heart 2. Increases removal of lactic acid & heat 3. Stretch to maintain flexibility
What are tendons Connective tissues that attach muscle to bone
What are ligaments Connective tissues that attach bone to bone
What are joints The spaces between bones that allow for movement
Three Types of Muscles 1. Cardiac muscle (e.g., heart) - involuntary 2. Skeletal muscle (e.g., biceps) - voluntary 3. Smooth muscle (e.g., stomach, intestines, arteries) - involuntary
Two Kinds of Muscle Fibers 1. Slow Twitch Fibers (Type I) - thin fibers, aerobic activity 2. Fast Twitch Fibers (Type II) - thick fibers, anaerobic activity, fatigue quickly
What is hypertrophy the development of large muscle fibers; the increase in size of muscle fibers stimulated by muscular overload from strength training
What is atrophy the reduction of the size of the muscle fiber due to inactivity or injury
What is hyperplasia the increase in the number of muscle of fibers
What is a motor unit a nerve connected to a group of muscle fibers; composed of a motor neuron and the muscle fibers it acts on
Define muscle learning the improvement in the body's ability to recruit motor units, brought about through strength training
Name 3 of 7 benefits of Resistance Training 1. Increases lean body mass 2. Increases resting metabolic rate 3. Increases bone mineral density 4. Increases performance 5. Increases activities of daily living 6. Increases psychological well-being 7. Decreases risk of injury
Define osteoporosis "porous bone" - the decrease of bone mineral density
Four Types of Resistance Training 1. Isotonic: Weight constant (Concentric - muscle shortens, Eccentric - muscle lengthens) 2. Isometric: Distance constant 3. Isokinetic: Speed constant 4. Variable resistance
Gluteals Butt
Quadriceps Front of thigh
Hamstrings Back of thigh
Calves Back of lower leg
Pectoralis Major Chest
Latissimus Dorsi Back
Trapezius Back of neck
Deltoids Top of shoulders
Triceps Back of arms
Biceps Front of arms
Rectus Abdominus Abdomen
Obliques Sides
Erector Spinae Lower back
Four Benefits of Flexibility Training 1. Increased range of motion 2. Increased performance 3. Decreased risk of injury 4. Decreased muscle tension
Three Types of Stretching 1. Static stretching: slow and controlled movements 2. Ballistic stretching: bouncing into a stretch - UNSAFE 3. PNF Stretching: characterized by contracting the muscle and then stretching - requires props or a partner
Name 3 of 6 Causes of Lower Back Pain 1. Weak abdominal muscles 2. Excess abdominal weight 3. Tight hamstrings/lower back 4. Poor posture 5. Improper lifting techniques 6. High heels
Created by: bamkapowxo