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WVSOM - Nutrition-4

Vitamin and Mineral Supplements

QuestionAnswer
Supplements on the market 29,000
US population that consumes a vitamin/mineral supplement > 1/2
Reasons for taking a supplement Nutritional needs, health insurance; based on friends advice
Proportion of people that take a multivitamin 1 in 5
Vitamins that people take megadoses of Vitamin C, E, betacarotene, iron, calcium
Taking supplements Costly, but harmless; sometimes both costly and harmful
Is self-prescribed supplementation advised? NO
Arguments for supplements Correct overt deficiencies, support increased nutrient needs, improve nutrition status, improves body's defenses, reduce disease risks
Who needs supplements? People with nutrtitional deficiencies; people with low energy intake (< 1600 kcal/day); vegans and those with atrophic gastritis need B12; people with lactose intolerance, milk allergies, inadequate intake of dietary foods
Willoughby study Energy drink consumption acutely increases platelet aggregation and decreases endothelial function in healthy young adults; thus, raising risk of mycardial infarction
Places where Red Bull is restricted France, Uruguay, Denmark; because of health risks listed on can
Energy drink facts Provide energy boost or dietary supplement; contain caffeine (up to 500mg) and other additives, such as taurine, ginseng, carntitine (act as stimulants)
Who else needs supplements? Infants (fluoride, iron); women of childbearing age (folate); pregnant women (folate, iron); elderly (B12, vitamin D); people with diseases, infections, injuries, surgery (affects nutrient digestion, absorption, metabolism); people taking medication
Arguments against supplements Toxicity, life-threatening misinformation, unknown needs, false sense of security
More invalid arguments against supplements Soil & food contain inadequate nutrients, supplements provide energy, enhance athletic performance/lean body mass, help cope with stress, prevent/treat/cure conditions, bioavailability and antagonisitc conditions
Weight loss diets Fad diets are not safe and affective for weight loss, should be research based, guidelines for identifying fad diets and weight-loss scams
Label claims 1. according to specific criteria, 2. lack of nutrient = deficiency, 3. scientifically supported health claims, 4. diagnose, treat, cure, relieve common complaints (not about specific disease), 5. structure-function claims accompanied by FDA disclaimer
Diet's achievements Don't count kcal's, satisfy hunger, follow a plan, limit choices
Size of weight loss market ($$) $60 BILLION!
Weight loss supplements Increase fat oxidation during exercise, acutely increase energy expenditure & fat metabolism, cause long-term adaptations that promote fat metabolism, impair fat absorption, prevent weight gain after weight loss, increase weight loss, suppress appetite
Popularity for "fat burner" supplements Health improvement, weight loss
What metabolizes caffeine? Cytochrome P-450 oxidase system
% of free caffeine being excreted in the urine 1-3%
Results of study with obese people supplemented with caffeine Caffeine ingestion has potential to enhance metabolism, but may not be potent enough alone to act as weight loss product if ingested over longer period of time or in habitually high-caffeine consumers
Source of carnitine Meat
Function of carnitine Transport long-chain FA across mitochondrial inner membrane (permeable to long-chain FA and fatty acyl-CoA esters)
Does oral carnitine ingestion change muscle carnitine concentration? NO
Does resting muscle have enough free carnitine to allow carnitine palmitoyl transferase to function at Vmax? YES
Active ingredients in "fat burner" supplements Caffeine, carnitine, chromium, fucoxanthin, green tea extracts, kelp, taurine, conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), forskolin, epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) tea
Chromium Said to be "muscle builder" and "fat burner"; claims not supported; lab tests indicate that it causes chromosomal damage
Forskolin Produced from Coleus plant; reduces body fat mass; only one study; looks promising
Green tea extract Has potential to increase fat metabolism at rest, during exercise, & may help lose body fat and weight; effects relatively small; metabolic mechanism not completely understood
Kelp Brown seaweed
Taurine Insufficient evidence that taurine has stimulating effect on fat metabolism; does warrant further investigation
Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) Isomer of omega-6 essential FA linoleic acid
CLA studies More effective in animals than humans
Fucoxanthin Carotenoid found in seaweed
Fucoxantin study Resulted in significant reduction of white adipose tissue in 4 weeks; may be biased (author works for company that holds patents for fucoxanthin); only one study
The only "true" fat burning supplements Activity i.e. EXERCISE!
Nutritional ergogenic aids Stimulants (caffeine); creatine; vitamin A, C, E; carnitine; androstenedione
Created by: JaneO