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WVSOM - Nutrition-1

Food Additives and Herbal Therapy

QuestionAnswer
5 functions of food additives 1. maintain consistency, 2. improve/preserve nutrient value, 3. preservation, 4. control acidity/alkalinity, 5. provide color & enhance flavor
GRAS Generally recognized as safe
Additive examples Salt, vinegar, guar gum, kelp, iron, AA, sodium nitrate, caffeine
FDA evaluation of additives for approval 1. composition and properties of the substance, 2. amount that would typically be consumed, 3. immediate and long-term health effects, 4. various safety factors related to additive
FDA approval of food additives 1. types of food where additive can be used, 2. maximum amount that can be used, 3. how additive must be identified on food label
BHA and BHT BHA: butylated hydroxyanisole, BHT: butylated hydroxytoluene; antioxidants used to preserve meats, baked goods, cereal, snack foods, beer, pre-packed food *cancer*
Glutamates Convenience foods, packaged foods *headaches, dizziness, palpitations, cancer*
Nitrates and nitrites Used in meats *cancer*
Sulfites Fruits, dried, fruits, jarred olives and peppers, corn syrup, cornstarch, wine, vinegar *allergies, cancer*
Benzoates Pickles, margarine, flour, fruit juices, beer *allergies, brain damage*
Flavor enhancers MSG - monosodium glutamate
High MSG Gelatin, hydrolyzed protein, textured protein, casein, broth, hydrolyzed/autolyzed yeast
Moderate MSG Soy protein, anything enriched, pectin, dry milk solids, anything protein fortified (protein bars, drinks), gums
Artificial sweetener that stimulates glutamate receptors Aspartame
Problem with MSG Over-stimulates glutamate receptors (excitotoxin), over excitation causes cell damage, glutamate receptors found in nerves (but also other tissues), estimated that 40% of population reacts to MSG
MSG linked to ... Obesity, cancer, diabetes, heart disease, migraines, brain damage, depression, epilepsy, ADHD, anxiety, CV disease, asthma, infertility, neurodegenerative diseases
MSG is in ... Soups, chinese food, sauces, salad dressings, breaded meats, meat toppings, treated fruits and vegetables
MSG solution Select fresh, whole, organic, and unprocessed foods as much as possible
Two uses for sugar subsitutes Supplements, sweeteners
Sugar substitute example Stevia (rebaudioside): trade names Truvia and Pure Via; leaf extracts approved as herbal supplement; purified glycosides approved in 2008 as food additive (sweetener) - may enhance glucose tolerance, negligible effect on blood glucose
Sugar substitute claims Possible aid for: weight loss, diabetes, hypertension, heart burn; may cause: bloating and nausea, dizziness, muscle pain, numbness; long-term effects not known
Artificial sweeteners pending approval Cyclamate (approved, rejected, pending: used in 55 countries); D-tagalose (seeking approval); Alitame (seeking approval)
Food dyes Marketing! NO: nutritional value, taste enhancement, preservation *associated with liver, heart, adrenal damage*
Ergogenic aids Work or performance enhancer
Nutritional ergogenic aids Any vitamin or mineral, amino acids and protein supplements, caffeine, carnitine, creatine, ginseng, guarana
Ergogenic aids: vitamin supplementation No benefit if the diet is adequate
Ergogenic aids: mineral supplementation No benefit if the diet is adequate
Ergogenic aids: amino acids and protein supplementation No benefit if the diet is adequate; protein is not a major energy source during exercise; potentially beneficial if calorie restricted diet
Ergogenic aids: caffeine Mixed results; stimulates FA metabolism (aerobic exercise)
Ergogenic aids: creatine Mixed results
Ergogenic aids: carnitine No supportive research
Ergogenic aids: ginseng No supportive research
Ergogenic aids: guarana Same as caffeine
Herbal therapy Some scientific evidence exists to support herbal health claims, but most herbal treatment claims are only supported by anecdotal evidence
T/F: disease-related claims for herbs are illegal T
Herb: Saw Palmetto Use: enlarged prostate, male-pattern hair loss, prostate cancer, underactive bladder; research: improves symptoms of prostate hypertrophy; side effects: stomach & intestine pain, increase bleeding risk, erection dysfunction
Herb: Saw Palmetto contraindications Sex hormones, aspirin, blood thinners, anti-platelet drugs
Herb: St. John's Wort Use: depression, anxiety, nervousness, PMS, OCD, atopic dermatitis; side effects: GI problems, delayed ejaculation, psychiatric symptoms *appears to be more effective than placebo and as effective as tricyclic anti-depressants
Herb: St. John's Wort contraindications Interferes with hepatic P450 enzyme; combination with anti-depressants = mania; alters menstrual flow, bleeding, possible increase in chance of pregnancy while on pill; increased sun sensitivity
Herb: Niacin (vitamin B3) Use: lowers cholesterol, pellagra, atherosclerosis, macular degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Diabetes; side effects: niacin flush, liver toxicity, lactic acidosis, abnormal heart rhythms, blood clotting problems
Herb: Niacin (B3) contraindications Be careful with other cholesterol lowering drugs, elevated blood sugar
Herb: Cranberry Use: H. pylori infections (ulcers), UTI, antioxidant, antibacterial, cancer prevention, dental plaques, kidney stones, memory improvement; side effects: 6oz juice contains 100 calories (diabetic patient)
Herb: Cranberry contraindications May increase risk of bleeding when taken with other anticoagulants, avoid oregano because of herbal-herbal interactions (ulcers)
Herb: Echinacea Use: colds, flu, immune system stimulant, vaginal yeast infections, cancer, prevention and treatment of upper respiratory infections; side effects: stomach problems
Herb: Echinacea contraindications Use not recommended for patients with HIV, may interact with amoxicillin, possible liver failure
Other common herbs Black Cohosh (reduces premenstrual discomfort & hot flashes), Dong Quai (relieves menstrual cramping), Garlic (lowers cholesterol), Ginko (improves memory), Ginger (anti-emetic & anti-inflammatory), Ginseng (lowers blood sugar, weight loss)
S(ubjective).O(bjective).A(ssessment).P(lan) Can be used to evaluate herbal supplements
Created by: JaneO