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WVSOM - Nutrition

Food Labels and Fad Diets

QuestionAnswer
Two types of panels Principal display panel and information panel
Principal display panel What the consumer sees first
Information panel Information that must be placed together without any intervening material
What four things must appear on an information panel? a) net contents of package, b) name and address of manufacturer, packer, or distributor (based on lablel size), c) ingredients list in descending order of predominance (wt), d) nutrition facts
List some nutrition facts i) serving size, servings per package, ii) total kcal and kcal from fat (per serving), iii) list of nutrients (fat - total, sat, trans, chol; pro, carb - total, sugar, fiber; vit. A & C; calcium; iron; sodium), iv) % of daily values
Two things to watch when reading food labels Punctuation and terms
Nutrient claims A claim that characterizes the level of a nutrient in a food directly or by implication; must use FDA approved terminology
Free, zero, no, negligible None or trace amounts (< 5 kcal)
Low Variable definitions, depending on nutrient (g, mg)
Reduced / less 25% less than comparable standard
FDA health claims report card system Grade given based on level of confidence in health claim compared to FDA required label disclaimer
Grade A Health claim = high (siginificant scientific agreement); label disclaimer = no disclaimer required
Grade B Health claim = moderate (evidence is supportive, but not conclusive); label disclaimer = "claim" (although there is scientific evidence supporting this claim, the evidence is not conclusive)
Grade C Health claim = low (evidence is limited and not conclusive); label disclaimer = some scientific evidence suggests "claim". However, the FDA has determined that this evidence is limited and not conclusive
Grade D Health claim = extremely low (little scientific evidence supporting this claim); label disclaimer = very limited scientific evidence suggests "claim". The FDA concludes that there is little scientific evidence supporting this claim
Health claims A claim that implies a relationship between the presence or level of a substance in a food and a disease or health-related condition; must be approved by the FDA (ex: may reduce the risk of osteoporosis) NOTE: this is not adequately enforced!
Structure / function claims Describes the effect that a substance has on the structure or function of the body, with no reference to disease; do not need to be approved by the FDA (ex: helps build strong bones) NOTE: this is not adequately enforced!
3 changes that need to be made to improve labels (according to Center for Science in the Public Interest) 1. improve nutrition facts panel 2. modernize ingredients label 3. improve regulation of health-related claims
Atkins diet Refined carbs are culprits (sugar, refined white flour, HFCS), saturated fats OK, trans fat BAD, NO insulin inducing foods! Phases: induction (20g CHO/day), ongoing weight loss (+ 5g CHO/day), pre-maintenance (+ 10g CHO/day), lifetime maintenance
Zone diet Hormone balance is key (insulin:glucagon ratio, anti-inflammatory, 40:30:30 - pro:carb:fat), body cannot burn and store fat at same time
Atkins diet evidence Some scientific evidence verifying weight loss and discounting high lipid levels; however, studies were short-term (1 yr or less)
Zone diet evidence No scientific evidence
South beach diet Good carbs (low glycemic index), good fats (polyunstat, omega-3 and 6), low glycemic foods key
South beach diet phases 1: 2 weeks; no sugar, candy, bread, fruit, cereal, grains; lose the insulin resistance 2: whole grains and fruits gradually re-introduced 3: when reach desired weight, 3 servings of grains/day, 3 servings of fruit/day
South beach diet evidence No scientific evidence
Protein power High protein, low carbs; 30-50% fat, 30-45% protein, 15-35% CHO; 850-1000 kcal/day; reduce carbs, vitamins, minerals, fiber intake
Consequences / symptoms of protein power Kidney stress, increase risk for heart disease, fatigue, weakness, irritability
Promotion of protein power Book sales and testimonials
Acai berry diet SCAM! Claims = antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, weight loss, increased energy, toxin cleansing, cures cancer, stops baldness, cures impotency, minimizes constipation, flushes intestines; no scientific evidence; all berries antioxidants & anti-inflammatory
Cabbage soup diet / soup diets 7 day plan (eat only soup); low calorie, high fiber, high water content; weight loss due to decreased caloric intake; variations on diet
Good housekeeping soup diet One large batch of soup lasts several day; breakfast and lunch = controlled portion meals; snacks = unlimited soup; dinners = soup; soup contents = broth and vegetables
Ornish diet Carbs are good! 70-75% CHO, 15-20% protein, <10% fat; <5mg cholesterol/day; recommends whole grains, fruits, veggies; very little meat, dairy, fat; lowers cholesterol; documented evidence of atherosclerotic regression
Ornish diet creator Dr. Dean Ornish, M.D.
Blood type diet Blood type determines diet; 1200 kcal; missing food groups O = mostly meats A = mostly fruits B = mostly oats and rice flours AB = tofu, sardines, oats, and rice
Foundation of all diets Insulin control
Sugar busters diet NO sugar; avoid simple/refined carbs; 800-1200 kcal; reduce carbs, vitamins, mineral, fiber intake; supported by testimonials (evidence based on opinions)
Sugar busters creators Corporate CEO and 3 medical doctors
Blood type diet creator Peter D'Adamo (naturopathic physician)
Evidence of protein power NO
Risks with low carb:high protein diets Low CHO decreases serotonin = depression; low insulin = muscle catabolism, decreased protein synthesis; increased kidney stone risk; compromises bone health; increases uric acid; gout; constipation; diarrhea; stomach cramps
Created by: JaneO