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Infection Control

MT II Vocabulary

Microbiology Is the science that studies living organisms that cannot be seen with the naked eye
Pathogens Microorganisms that cause disease
Aerobic microbes Live only in the presence of oxygen
Anaerobic microbes Grow best in the absence of oxygen
Antisepsis Solutions that are applied to the skin to prevent or slow the growth of pathogens
Disinfection Use of strong chemicals to kill pathogens (used mainly on objects)
Sterilization The best way to kill all microbes and kill their spores
Bacteria One-celled plants classifed by their shapre and arrangement
Fungi Plantlike organisms that live on dead matter
Protozoa Tiny animals found in contaminated water supplies and live in decayed material
Rickettsiae Parasites that must live inside the cells of other living organisms
Virus Smallest of all the microorganisms
Contagious Infections that can be spread to other people
Chain of Infection Six factors that if broken will lead to infection
Reservoir Where the organisms can live
Endogenous Originates within the body
Exogenous Developed and originating outside the body
Opportunistic Denoting a microorganism that does not usually cause a disease but becomes a pthogen under certain circumstances
Medical asepsis Absence of disease causing microorganisms
Surgical asepsis Absence of disease causing microorganisms including spores and viruses
Autoclave An instrument used to sterilize
Communicable disease Any disease transmitted from one person to another directly, by contact with excreta or other discharges from the body, or indirectly, via substances or inanimate objects
Hepatis B A form of viral hepatitis caused by the HBV virus
Nosocomial Infection acquired in the hospital
Contagious Communicable, such as a disease that can be transmitted by direct or indirect contact
Fomite Objects contaminated with infectious materials that contain pathogens
Host A place where microorganisms can live and multiply
Immunity Condition of being protected against a particular disease
Mode of transmission A way in which a germ can be transmmitted to another reservoir or host where it can live
Potal of entry A way to enter a new reservoir or host
Portal of exit A way to escape from the reservoir
HEPA filter Contains special filters to prevent the entrance of small airborne pathogens
PPE Personal protective equipment. Examples: maks, gown, gloves
Transmission-based precautions A method or technique of caring for patients with communicable disease
Microbes A microorganisms; a germ; a small living organisms that is not visable to the naked eye
Standard precautions Rules developed by the CDC to protect health care workers
Contaminated Organisms or pathogens are present
Airborne precautions Used for patients with known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by airborne droplets
Droplet precautions Used for patients known or suspected to be infected with pathogens transmitted by large particle droplets expelled during coughing, sneezing, talking or laughing
Contact precautions used for patients known or suspected to be infected with germs that are capable of spreading rapidly from person to person
Protective or reverse isolation Refers to methods used to protect certain patients from organisms present in the environment
Created by: sandra.whiteside