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Med Language Ch. 18

Turley - Oncology

Onc/o- tumor; mass
-oma tumor; mass
carcinogens environmental substances that contribute to the develoment of cancer i.e. radiation, chemicals funes, foreign particles, some hormone drugs, etc.
pathogens viruses and bacteria that cause chronic irritation and inflammation that can eventually damage the DNA
mutation condition that changes
oncogenes mutated genes in the RNA of a virusmet
metastases when cancer cells move from their place of origin (primary cancer) and move to another area of the body
necrosis condition of dead cells or tissue
tumor new growth or neoplasm (may be malignant or benign)
benign a tumor which lacks the ability to metastasize
malignant the tendency of a medical condition, especially tumors, to become progressively worse and to potentially result in death.
mal- bad
sarc/o- connective tissue
gli/o- cells that provide support
rhabd/o- rod-shaped
myel/o- bone marrow
karyotype examination of the chromosomes under a microscope
cry/o- cold
grading classifies cancers by how differentiated their cells appear under a microscope
staging classifies cancer by how far it has spread in the body
monoclonal antibodies bind to specific antigens on the surface of a cancerous cell and destroy the cell
chemotherapy chemical drug treatment to treat cancer
radical resection cutting out and removing a cancerous tumor, as well as nearby lymph nodes, soft tissue and even bone.
central venous catheter a catheter that is tunneled through the subcutaneous tissue in the upper chest, than inserted into a large vein and the tip advanced to the SVC (for infusion of chemotherapy)
brachytherapy type of radiation therapy in which the radiation source is implanted into the body within or within a short distance of the tumor.