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Med Language Ch. 10

Turley - Neurology

neurology the medical specialty that studies the anatomy and physiology of the nervous system
sulcus narrow groove on the surface of the brain
gyri elevated folds on the surface of the brain
cerebrum largest and most obvious part of the brain
cerebral cortex outermost layer of the cerebrum (gray matter)
fissure a natural cleft between body parts or in the substance of an organ
hemisphere one half of the cerebrum (separated by a deep anterior to posterior fissure)
corpus callosum connecting arch of neurons which supplies the only connection between the hemishperes of the cerebrum
gustatory having the function of the sense of taste
auditory having the function of the sense of hearing
frontal pertaining to the front
ventricles four interconnected cavities in the brain fill with cerebrospinal fluid
brainstem composed of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata
occipital pertaining to the back of the head
occipital lobe area of the brain near the back of the head that analyzes the sensory information about vision
temporal lobe two lobes (rt and lt) on each side of the head where sensory information about hearing and smells are analyzed.
cerebellum the separate rounded section of the brain that lies inferior to the cerebrum. receives sensory information about muscle tone and body position to maintain balance
meninges 3 separate layers of tissue that surround and protect the brain and spinal cord
spinal cord long narrow column of neural tissue within the spinal canal
cauda equina group of nerve roots found at the inferior end of the spinal cord
epidural upon or above the dura mater
afferent pertaining to bringing toward the center (nerve impulse to the spinal cord)
efferent pertaining to bringing away or out from the center (nerve impulse to the body)
autonomic nervous system controls the involuntary contractions of the cardiac muscle, as well as smooth muscles around organs, glands and other structures (broken down into sympathetic and parasympathetic)
parasympathetic division active when the body is sleeping, resting, eating, or doing light activity (rest and digest)
sympathetic dcoivision active when the body is active or exercising (fight or flight initiated here under stressful conditions)
somatic nervous system controls the voluntary movements of the skeletal system such as running and moving your eyes to read
neurotransmitter chemical substance that transmits a signal from one neuron to another
neurons fundamental functional unit of nervous tissue
aphasia loss of the ability to communcate verbally or in writing
amnesia partial or total loss of memory
cephalgia or cephalalgia headache
arteriovenous malformation (AVM) abnormal connection of arteries to veins with no capillaries in between forming an abnormal tangle of vessels
cerebral palsy caused by lack of oxygen to parts of the fetus's brain during birth resulting in spastic muscles and poor coordination
Cerebral vascular accident (CVA) stroke;brain attack
hemiparesis muscle weakness on one side of the body
hemiplegia paralysis on one half of the body
ischemic pertaining to blood being blocked from flowing to a tissue or organ
infarct area of dead tissue
deficit a lack or impairment of functional capacity
concussion a jarring injury of the brain resulting in disturbance of cerebral function and sometimes marked by permanent damage
dementia disease of the brain in which many neurons in the cerebrum die, the cerebral cortex shrinks in size, and there is progressive deterioration of mental function
sym- together; with
epilepsy recurring condition in which a group of neurons in the brain spontaneously send out electrical impulses in an uncontrolled way
encephalitis inflammation and infection of the brain caused by a virus
hydrocephalus condition in which an excessive amount of CSF is produced or the flow of CSF is blocked
meningitis inflammation and infection of the meninges caused by either a virus or bacteria
nuchal pertaining to the neck
syncope temporary loss of consciousness; fainting
anesthesia condition in which sensation of any type is lost
-pleg/o paralysis
myel/o- bone marrow, spinal cord
electroencephelagram recording of the electrical activity of the brain
lamin/o- lamina (flat area on the spinal cord)