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Med Language Ch 3


mastication chewing
deglutition swallowing
lingu/o tongue
labi/o lip
mesial nearer to midline
pharynx throat
trachea windpipe
esophagus muscular tube extending from the pharynx to the stomach
peristalsis the involuntary, progressive rhythmic contraction of the muscles of gastrointestinal organs propelling a bolus of food through the system
fundus upper portion of stomach
rugae folds in the mucous membrane of the stomach
sphincter ring of muscle
duodenum first section of the small bowel about 1 foot long
jejunum second part of the small bowel about 8 feet long
ileum third part of the small bowel about 11 feet long
cecum a pouch attaching the ileum to the ascending colon; appendix hangs from this part
large intestine or colon part of the GI tract that absorbs the majority of the water from the waste material
defecation the expulsion or passage of feces
feces solid human waste;stool
appendix blind pouch hanging from the cecum
digestion breakdown of complex foods to simper forms
gallbladder small sace under the liver;stores bile
bile digestive juice made in the liver; breaks up large fat globules
bowel intestine
portal vein large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
bucc/o cheek
celi/o belly, abdomen
cheil/o lip
choledoch/o common bile duct
dent/i tooth
gastr/o stomach
hepat/o liver
gloss/o tongue
gingiv/o gums
or/o mouth
lapar/o abdomen
odont/o toothe
proct/o anus and rectum
sialaden/o salivary gland
amyl/o starch
chol/e gall, bile
gluc/o sugar
lip/o fat, lipid
lith/o stone
sial/o saliva, salivary
steat/o fat
-ase enzyme
-chezia defecation, elimation of wastes
-iasis abnormal condition
-prandial meal
ascites abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
anorexia lack of appetite
borborygmus rumbling or gurling noise made by the movement of gas, fluids or both in the GI tract
dysphagia difficulty in swallowing
flatus gas expelled through the anus
melena black tarry stools; feces containing digested blood
steatorrhea fat in the feces
eructation gas expelled from the stomach through the mouth - "burp"
constipation difficulty in passing stools
jaundice yellow-orange coloration of the skin and whites of eyes due to high levels of bilirubin in the blood
diarrhea frequent passage of loose, watery stools
hernia protrusion of an organ or part through the muscle normally containing it
polyp benign growth
fistula a permanent abnormal passageway between two organs in the body or between an organ and the exterior of the body
diverticulosis abnormal outpouchings in the intestinal wall
diverticulitis when one or more diverticula become inflamed or infected.
intussusception telescoping of the intestines
volvulus twisting of the intestine on itself
cirrhosis chronic degenerative disease of the liver
hemorrhoids are swollen and inflamed veins in the anus and lower rectum