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NFPT Ch.4

Anatomical Terms and Biomechanics

QuestionAnswer
Parallel Sagittal Plane (Parallel Sagittal) Parallel with midline, divides the body laterally.
Frontal Plane (Coronal) Divides body into a front half and a back half. EX: Lateral raise, pull down, military press.
Transverse Plane (Horizontal Plane) Divides body superiorly and inferiorly. EX: Rotation at the waist, bench press, internal, and external rotation.
Sagittal Plane Along the side of the body. EX: Pulling down a shade, elbow bending forward, lunge, squat.
Superior Above
Inferior Below
Anterior (Ventral) To the front.
Posterior (Dorsal) To the back.
Proximal Toward the trunk.
Distal Away from the trunk. Furthest from.
Medial Towards the middle point of the body.
Bilateral Both sides of the body.
Unilateral One side of the body.
Peripheral Toward the extremities.
Superficial Toward the outer surface.
Deep Muscles Towards the inner body.
Give an example of a HINGE joint. Elbow, Knee. (concave surface moving along the convex surface. 1 degree of freedom.. Move in one plane.)
Give an example of a FIXED joint. Skull.
Give an example of a BALL AND SOCKET joint. Shoulder, hip. (The 3 degree joints. Move in 3 planes at the same time.)
Give an example of a GLIDING joint. Wrist, Foot. (Joints that slide past each other, 3 degrees of freedom.. 3 planes at one time.)
The adult has 24 vertebrae. How many in the Cervical, Thoracic, and Lumbar? Cervical-7 Thoracic-12 Lumbar-5
4 Bones make up the pelvic girdle. What are they? The Sacrum, Ilium, Ischium, and Pubic bone.
What are the 3 main parts in the shoulder structure? Scapula, Humeral Head, and the Clavicle.
A CONCENTRIC contraction of a muscle is.. Causes fibers to shorten and contract. The 'positive' part of a rep.
An ECCENTRIC contraction of a muscle is.. Muscles contract while fibers lengthen. Considered the 'negative' part of a rep.
An ISOTONIC contraction of a muscle is.. Any concentric or eccentric muscular contraction that results in movement of a joint. EX: A bicep curl, leg extension.
An ISOMETTRIC contraction of a muscle is.. Is tension being cause but no mechanical work is being done. EX: Holding weight out in front of you.
An ISOKINETIC contraction of a muscle is.. Muscle contraction at a constant velocity while pushing an immovable object.
What is an Agonist muscle? Muscle performing a particular action. Also known as a prime mover.
What is an Antagonist muscle? Muscle responsible for moving a joint in its opposite direction.
What is an example or two of antagonistic muscle groups? -Pectorals/Lattisimus Dorsi -Anterior and Posterior Deltoids -Left and Right external Obliques -Quadriceps/Hamstrings -Biceps/Triceps
This sensory nerve (embedded in the fibers of a tendon) shuts down muscle contraction just short of serious acute muscle injury. Golgi Tendon.
Stretch receptors that shut down muscle contraction just short of over-stretch muscle tissue tearing. Muscle Spindles
Flexion Bending of a joint that decreases the angle.
Extension Straightening of a joint that increases the angle.
Hypoextension Less extension then usual.
Hyperextension Extension beyond normal limits.
Abduction Away from the body.
Adduction Toward the body.
Pronation Palm turning down.
Supination Palm turning up.
Rotation Around an axis.
Circumduction Circular movement.
Protraction Forward motion occurs at shoulder joint. (abduction)
Retraction Backward motion, occurs in the shoulder joint. (adduction)
Dorsiflexion (ankle) Pointing foot up towards the body.
Plantarflexion (ankle) Pointing foot down.
Inversion Turning the feet inward so the soles face each other.
Eversion Turning the soles outward.
Created by: laceymp