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Sociology21

Social Interactions, Social Groups, and Deviance

QuestionAnswer
The process by which people act and react in relation to others. Through social interaction we create the reality we perceive. Social Interaction
• Social patterns that guide our everyday lives. • Social structure provides guidelines for behavior, making everyday life understandable and predictable. Social Structure
• A social pattern that an individual occupies. Status is part of our social identity and defines our relationship to others. • Status set refers to all the statuses a person holds at a given time. Social Status
• A social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life. (Ex: Gender, Citizenship, Race, Disability) Given. No control over. Ascribed Status
Chosen. Choice. Voluntary • A social position a person assumes voluntarily and that reflects personal ability and choice. (Ex. President, Student) Achieved Status
So important people automatically connect it with you. • A status that has special importance for social identity, often shaping a person’s entire life. • President, profound disability. (in your face.) Master Status
• Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status. Role
Conflict among role corresponding to two or more statuses. Role Conflict
Tension among roles connected to a single status. Role Strain
• The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction. Social Construction of Reality
We present ourselves in terms that suit the setting and our purposes & as others do the same, reality emerges. • Our perception of what is real is determined by the subjective meaning we attributed to an experience. Social Construction of Reality
An individual’s effort to create specific impressions in the minds of others. (or Impression management) Presentation of Self
explores the process of making sense of social encounters. (how they interact) Ethnomethodology
This branch looks into the roles people play. It is the study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance. Dramaturigical Analysis
Two of more people who identify with one another. Social Groups
A small social group whose members share a personal and enduring relationships. (People you are closest to: family, inner circle of friend) Primary Groups
Large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity. (kind of know each other: sociology class.) Secondary Groups
Instrumental and Expressive Leadership 2 types of leadership
Leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks. “Get things done.” Instrumental leadership
Focuses on collective well-being. Expressive leadership
Laissez-faire, Authoritarian, Democratic Leadership styles
Focuses on instrumental concerns, takes personal charge of decision-making and demands strict compliance from subordinates. (take charge) Authoritarian
More expressive, makes a point of including everyone in the decision-making process. (everyone has the chance to participate) Democratic
Allows the group to function more of less on its own. (hands off) Laissez-faire
the tendency of group members to confirm, resulting in a narrow view of some issues. Group think
a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions. (youth group) reference group
a social group toward which a member feels respect and loyalty. (social clubs, political parties) in-group
A social group toward which one feels competition or opposition. out-group
Large secondary groups that are organized to achieve their goals sufficiently. formal organization
Coercive, Normative, Utilitarian Types of formal organization
work, income-based organizations; one that pays people for their efforts. (work) Utilitarian
Join to pursue some goal they think is morally worthwhile. (Choose to join) Voluntary. Community Service (Lions, Civitans) Normative
People are forced to join; involuntary. (School, jail) Coercive
An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently. Bureaucracy
Hierarchy of offices Specialization Impersonality Formal, written communication Technical competence Rules and regulations 6 Key Elements of an Ideal Bureaucratic Organization
People are assigned highly specialized duties. One: Run, speciality of running. Specialization
Vertical ranking of offices forming a pyramid of power. 2:shoe stacking shoes into a hirearchy Hierarchy of offices
Designed to help the organization operate in a completely prediction fashion. 3:tree: before you climb this tree you have to follow these rules. Rules and Regulations
impersonal evaluation of performances. 4: door: have to know how, be competent to open a door. technical competence
rules ahead of personal whims so that everyone is treated formally. 5: hive: bees are attacking everyone. They don’t care who. impersonality
heart is not people, but paperwork. 6: sticks: writing with sticks in dirt. formal, written communication
Bureaucratic ritualism Bureaucratic alienation Bureaucratic inertia Oligarchy Common problems in organizations
everything is so structured that everyone becomes attached. Cubicals. Bureaucratic alienation
Doing things the same way with the same method over and over. Bureaucratic ritualism
We have to keep this organization going and growing no matter what! March of Dimes and Polio, switched over to another cause. Bureaucratic inertia
The pyramid of power. The control of many by few. Oligarchy
• 1. Hiring and advancement • 2. Lifetime security • 3. Holistic involvement • 4. Broad-based training • 5. Collective Decision Making The 5 major differences between formal organizations in Japan and US (Individual focus v. Group focus)
Efficiency Predictability Uniformity Control Take all the art out of the job. Creating a cookie-cutter society, instead of individuality. “McDonaldization” of Society
The recognized violation of cultural norms. Deviance is NOT always bad. Deviance
Attempts by society to regulate people’s thoughts and behavior. Social Control
A formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violation of the law. Criminal justice system
Biological context Personality factors Social factors Explanation of Deviance
Attempt to link deviance with biological/genetic characteristics. Biological context
Attempts to determine what psychological/personality factors resulted in deviances. Personality factors
Deviance is shaped by society. Social factors
• Deviance varies according to cultural norms. • People become deviant as others define them that way. • Both norms and the way that people define situations involve social power. Three Critical Foundations in Understanding Deviance
The US has one of the highest criminal recidivism rates in the world. (repeating offenders) • Records some 12 mil serious crimes in the US each year. • The majority of citizen will be victimized by crime. • Highest crime rates in the world. Criminal Statistics
Involvement Belief Opportunity Attachment Hirschi's Control Theory
Strong attachment encourages conformity. attachment
Increased access to legitimate opportunity encourages conformity. opportunity
Extensive involvement in legit activities inhibits deviance. involvment
Strong beliefs in convention morality and respect for authority decreases deviance. belief
• Deviance is linked to social inequality. Who or what is labeled “deviant” depends on which categories of people hold power in society. Deviance and Inequality
o White-collar crime: high class o Corporate crime: crime that takes o Street crime: public places, gangs, thugs o Organized crime: mafia o Hate crime: race, discrimination Perpectives on Crime
• Official stats show that arrest rates peak in late adolescences and drop steadily with advancing age. GENDER Economic position Race Deviance and Social Diversity
Law Enforcement: "Point of Contact" Courts: Social Justice Correctional System: Punishment Key Elements of the Criminal Justice System
Retribution Deterrence Rehabilitation Societal Protection Four Justifications for Punishment
"Moral vengeance" Retribution
Discourage criminality through punishment Deterrence
Reform the offender rehabilitation
render offender incapable of further offenses through imprisonment. Societal Protection
Created by: acpearl