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LPT Med adm chap 2

absorption passage of a substance into the bloodstream from the site of administration
action the drug's chemical effects on body cells
adverse reaction an unintended and undesirable effect of a drug
allergy the reaction of the body cell to a foreign substance (antigen) to which it has previously developed antibodies
anaphylaxis severe allergic reaction that may be fatal
antigen substance that stimulates production of antibodies and causes allergic reactions
antibody substance produced in the body that helps the body fight off foreign invaders like micro-organisms and antigens
biotransformation also known a metabolism: normal body process by which substances are chemically broken down into a water soluble form that the body can excrete; part of the cells work of burning fuel for growth and energy
cumulative effect increased effects of drug that is not completely metabolized or excreted before another dose is administered
dependence a compulsion to continue taking a drug: can be physical and/or psychological
detoxify eliminate substances that are toxic or poisonous to the body
distribution transport of drugs to body cells and spaces between cells
drug abuse taking drugs for thier mood-altering effects or taking too many drugs or too much of a drug
drug misuse overuse or careless use of any drug
dyspnea difficult or labored breathing
effect a physical or psychological change in a patient brought about by a drug
enzyme a chemical that speeds up biotransformation
excretion the removal of waste substances from the body
histamine substance released from injured cells during an allergic reaction, responsible for allergic symptoms
idiosyncrasy a peculiar, unusual individual response to a drug
local having an effect in the immediate area of administration for example eyedrops designed to only affect the eye
overdose drug dose that is too large for a person's age, size, or physical condition
pharmacokinetics the absorbtion, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs
placebo an inactive substance that has not pharmacological effect (pill containing sugar or injection of normal saline/sterile water)
potentiation two drugs administered at the same time where one drug increases the effect of the other
reservoir a tissue where drugs tend to collect; different drugs tend to collect in different tissues
side effects desirable or undesirable effects of drug apart from the primary purpose for giving the drug
synergism drug interaction in which the effect of the two drug in combination is greater the effects of each drug given separately
systemic having an effect throughout the body
therapeutic effect desired or predicted physiological response caused by a drug
tolerance need for increased dose of a drug to produce the same physical and/or psychological effect
toxicity poisonous effect of prolonged exposure to high doses or too-frequent administration of a drug
withdrawal symptoms a set of physical reactions that occur when a person stops taking a drug on which he or she is phycially dependent
organs that excrete waste kidneys, large intestine, lungs, milk glands, skin
drug action is affected by four bodily processes absorption, distribution, biotransformation, excretion
Name 5 OTC drugs that are commonly abused laxative, acetaminophen, aspirin, nicotine, alcohol
What are two critical symptoms may occur when a patient takes an overdose of CNS depressants breathing stops and heart stops
After taking several doses of medicine, Bill no longer seems to be affected by the drug. This may be a symptom of tolerance
Mrs Jones gets a stronger drug effect with each additional dose of her medication. She maybe showing signs of cumulative effect
Annie is reacting in an abnormal or peculiar way to her medication. You have never seen a person react this way to the medication she is taking. Drug allergy has been ruled out. Annie's response to the drug will probably be classified as idiosyncrasy
Miss Grimes seems very sleepy and confused after receiving her medication. You discover that someone misread the order and gave her a dose that was too large. You notify the supervisor immediately because you think she is showing signs of overdose
Symptoms of mild to moderate drug allergy skin rashes, itchy eyes, itchy skin, wheezing, fever, nasal drainage
Symptoms of anaphylaxis severe wheezing and dyspnea as the bronchial muscle constricts and swelling of the pharynx and larynx. A medical emergency.
T/F Intravenous drugs are administered directly into the muscle and have the fastest absorption false
T/F The sex of an individual can influence drug action true
T/F Drugs are absorbed more quickly if the patient has food in the gastrointestinal tract false
T/F Drugs act faster in hot weather true
T/F Avoid reexposure to the drug when an allergic reaction occurs true
A skin lotion is applied to dry skin for a(n) local effect
Withdrawal symptoms include nausea and sweating
The healthcare worker's responsibility in adverse reaction is to immediately call the nurse or supervisor
Because of a disease condition, a patient's liver cannot metabolize drugs very quickly. They begin to collect in the patient's body, so you see a stronger effect after each dose. This is an example of cumulation
A decreased physiological response to repeated administrations of a drug is tolerance
The route of administration in which absorption begins in the mouth is sublingual or buccal
After a healthcare worker administers a drug by the oral route, absorption begins in the stomach/intestine
The effects of Tetracycline are decreased when it is taken with milk and milk products
The processing and elimations of drugs are affected by diseases of the the liver and kidneys
Drugs that frequently produce a tolerance are tobacco and alcohol
When one drug modifies the action of another drug, it is called drug interaction
Maalox (antacid) and ferrous sulfate (iron supplement are given to a patient receiving tetracycline, and antibiotic, is an example of antagonism
A patient may take two drugs for hypertension because of their synergistic effect
When drug cumulation occurs stop the medication
An ____person may require a higher dose of a drug to achieve the desired result obese
The absorption of fat-soluable vitamins (A,D,E,& K) is decreased when taking mineral oil for constipation
Created by: LPT Program