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Nutrition

Carbohydrates, Protein, Lipids

QuestionAnswer
Hydrogen, Carbon, and Oxygen make up? Carbohydrates
Simple carbohydrates contain only 1 or 2 sugar molecules (Simplest of all sugars)? Monosaccharide
Glucose, Fructose, and Galactose are all? Monosaccharides
Glucose is also known as? Dextrose
Fruit sugar, sweetest of all natural sugars? Fructose
Which sugar is in lactose? Galactose
Sucrose, Maltose, and Lactose are all? Disaccharides
Glucose + Fructose = Sucrose
Which disaccharide breaks down starch (not found naturally in foods)? Maltose
Glucose + Galactose = (least sweetest sugar)? Lactose
True or False. Another name for glucose is dextrose and is the sugar into which the body makes all digestible carbohydrates? True
Complex carbohydrates, that do not taste sweet. Starch, glycogen, and fiber are types of? Polysaccharides
Which stores in the fat cells if not used? Glycogen
Generally considered a group name for polysaccharides that cannot be digested by human enzymes? Fiber
Source of energy for colon lining? Fiber
Bran, endosperm, and germ make up? Whole grains
Rich in starch, but lack the fiber, vitamins trace minerals, fat, and phytochemicals found in whole grains? Refined grains
Required to be fortified. Examples include: white flour, white bread, white rice, and refined cornmeal? Enrichment
Most carbohydrate digestion occurs in the? Small Intestine
Are the only form of carbohydrates the body is able to absorb intact? Monosaccharides
95% of what is digested usually within 1 to 4 hours after eating? Starch
Fructose and galactose are converted to glucose in the? Liver
Blood glucose concentration begins to drop Pancreas releases glucagon, stimulates liver to release glucose? Postprandial state
Balance between catabolism and anabolism = ? Glucose metabolism
Brain is totally dependent on what for energy? Glucose
When the body does not have an adequate intake of glucose, the formation of ketone bodies increases. Increased production of ketones has several side effects. What is one of these side effects? Sodium depletion
A component of every living cell. Accounts for 20% of adult weight. Immune to the controversy over optimal intake? Protein
Basic building blocks of protein? Amino Acids
Composed of Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, and Nitrogen Atoms? Protein
9 are considered what, because the body cannot ake them-indispensable; they must be consumed through food? Essential
11 are considered what, because they can be made by the body-dispensable? Nonessential
Amino acids are the building blocks of protein. They are classed as either essential or nonessential. Which of these is an essential amino acid: Glycine, Aspartic Acid, Tyrosine, or Leucine? Leucine
Amino acids, and sometimes a few depeptides or larger peptides, are absorbed through the mucosa of the? Small intestine
Reflects the state of balance between protein breakdown and protein synthesis? Nitrogen balance
Nitrogen Balance when protein synthesis exceeds protein breakdown? Positive
Nitrogen Balance an undesirable state that occurs when protein breakdown exceeds protein synthesis? Negative
True or False. Healthy adults are in a positive state of nitrogen balance? False
2 proteins that when combined provide adequate amounts and proportions of all essential amino acids needed to support protein synthesis? Complementary proteins
Sometimes the recommended daily allowances do not apply to a diet. Why is this true? Intended for healthy people.
Created by: Demure_Dulcet